Learn More
To investigate sex and menstrual cycle effects in response to cocaine administration, data from existing studies were analyzed. First, responses to a single delivery of 0.4 mg/kg smoked cocaine were investigated. Women reported lower ratings for measures of paranoid/suspicious and heart racing/pounding than did men. In addition, women in the luteal phase(More)
Photoperiodic regulation of testicular function was investigated in homozygous tau mutant hamsters; these animals have an innate circadian period of about 20 h. In 20-h light:dark (LD) cycles, the minimum photoperiod required to prevent testicular regression was between 10.0 and 11.5 h per 20-h cycle (equivalent to 12.0-13.8 circadian hours). This was(More)
The ability of social stimuli to act as entraining agents of circadian rhythms was investigated in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). In a first experiment, pairs of male hamsters (one of them enucleated and the other intact) were maintained under a ligh-dark (LD) cycle with a period of 23.3 h. Running-wheel activity was recorded to determine the(More)
Principle factors involved in effective vascular occlusion were identified and incorporated into a computer program designed to calculate the minimal occlusion force (MOF) in accordance with a modified version of Laplace's law. In vivo, the carotid arteries of 14 guinea pigs were occluded for one hour at an experimentally determined MOF or MOF + 50. A good(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, in comparison to the effects of the nicotine patch, and a combination thereof during cigarette abstinence. More specifically, this study examined the effects of cotinine on physiological measures, subjective measures assessing craving, withdrawal symptoms and mood,(More)
Previous studies have shown that cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, antagonizes some of the effects of nicotine. One study showed that cotinine eliminates the beneficial effects of the nicotine patch in reducing cigarette withdrawal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various doses of cotinine on cigarette self-administration.(More)
We have characterized a decrease in photic responsiveness of the mammalian circadian entrainment pathway caused by light stimulation. Phase delays of the running-wheel activity rhythm were used to quantify the photic responsiveness of the circadian system in mice (C57BL/6J). In an initial experiment, the authors measured the responsiveness to single(More)
Cocaine has been shown to activate the sympathoadrenal system in both animal and human studies. Controlled human studies have found inconclusive results regarding whether acute cocaine treatment elevates plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly abused doses of cocaine increase plasma(More)
Muscle strength and proprioception deficits have been recognized in knee OA. Pain is the symptomatic hallmark of knee OA. Indirect evidence suggests that muscle strength and proprioception deficits may be interrelated and that pain may have a confounding influence on the measurement of these factors in knee OA. However, these relationships have never been(More)
A mathematical analysis of the minimum occlusion force necessary to occlude small vessels based on the parametric influence of blood pressure, vessel diameter, clamp width, and vessel shape after clamping was performed. The results were confirmed by in vivo experimentation with 60 rat aortas (of 1.8 to 2.4 mm caliber) using a variable-force clamp gauge(More)