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We have used brain tissue from clinically well-documented and neuropathologically confirmed cases of sporadic Parkinson's disease to establish the transcriptomic expression profile of the medial and lateral substantia nigra. In addition, the superior frontal cortex was analyzed in a subset of the same cases. DNA oligonucleotide microarrays were employed,(More)
This study provides an expression signature of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-activated microglia. Microglia are macrophage precursor cells residing in the brain and spinal cord. The microglial phenotype is highly plastic and changes in response to numerous pathological stimuli. IFN-gamma has been established as a strong immunological activator of microglial(More)
The identification of mutations that cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a framework for studies into pathways that may be perturbed also in the far more common, non-familial form of the disorder. Following this hypothesis, we have examined the gene regulatory network that links alpha-synuclein and parkin pathways with dopamine metabolism in(More)
There is growing evidence that dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and failure of the cellular protein degradation machinery, specifically the ubiquitin-proteasome system, play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. We now show that the corresponding pathways of these two systems are linked at the transcriptomic level(More)
The cell culture model utilized in this study represents one of the most widely used paradigms of microglia in vitro. After 14 days, microglia harvested from the neonatal rat brain are considered 'mature'. However, it is clear that this represents a somewhat arbitrary definition. In this paper, we provide a transcriptome definition of such microglial cells.(More)
Sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. However, pathological cell death within this nucleus is not uniform. In PD, the lateral tier of the substantia nigra (SNl) degenerates earlier and more severely than the more medial nigral component (SNm). The cause of this brain(More)
Neurons that fire in relation to licking, in the ventral part of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), were studied during acquisition and performance of a licking task in rats for 14 sessions (2 h/d). Task learning was indicated by fewer errors of omission of licking and improved movement efficiency (i.e., shorter lick duration) over sessions. Number of licks(More)
Firing during sensorimotor exam was used to categorize single neurons in the lateral striatum of awake, unrestrained rats. Five rats received unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle to deplete striatal dopamine (DA; >98% depletion, postmortem assay). Three months after treatment, rats exhibited exaggerated(More)
To examine the role of striatal mechanisms in cocaine-induced stereotyped licking, we investigated the acute effects of cocaine on striatal neurons in awake, freely moving rats before and after cocaine administration (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg). Stereotyped licking was induced only by the high dose. Relative to control (saline), cocaine reduced lick duration(More)
We have analysed the microglial pathway stimulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) using an in silico approach employing a database of eukaryotic molecular interactions and a microarray dataset validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Following IFN-gamma stimulation, production of neuroprotective factors by microglia was found to be reduced while(More)