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Analysis of English historical texts poses a number of obstacles for standard corpus analysis and annotation techniques. In addition to non-standard spellings and contractions, there are difficulties at the morphological, phonetic and syntactic levels. Our response has been to develop a VARiant Detector (VARD). We trained VARD on 16th-19th century data,(More)
Automatic extraction of multiword expressions (MWE) presents a tough challenge for the NLP community and corpus linguistics. Although various statistically driven or knowledge based approaches have been proposed and tested, efficient MWE extraction still remains an unsolved issue. In this paper, we present our research work in which we tested approaching(More)
1. Introduction In this paper, we describe the approaches taken by two teams of researchers to the identification of spelling variants. Each team is working on a different language (English and German) but both are using historical texts from much the same time period (17 th – 19 th century). The approaches differ in a number of other respects, for example(More)
The double-stranded (ds) RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR is considered to play an important role in interferon's (IFN's) response to viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking PKR are predisposed to lethal intranasal infection by the usually innocuous vesicular stomatitis virus, and also display increased susceptibility to influenza virus(More)
As reported by Wilson and Rayson (1993) and Rayson and Wilson (1996), the UCREL semantic analysis system (USAS) has been designed to undertake the automatic semantic analysis of present-day English (henceforth PresDE) texts. In this paper, we report on the feasibility of (re)training the USAS system to cope with English from earlier periods, specifically(More)
The bias of computer searches towards form (e.g. a letter or string of letters) can be a major difficulty for linguistic analyses of texts. In particular, how form relates to context in interactive texts tends to be overlooked. Corpus linguists have been seeking to improve our understanding of the relationships between forms (e.g. collocations, lexical(More)
It is widely accepted that texts representative of a variety of genres display a marked degree of spelling variation throughout the Early Modern English (EModE) period, in spite of the English language's gradual standardization Until recently, our knowledge of this gradual standardization of variant spelling forms was largely founded on qualitative studies.(More)
Interferon (IFN) mediates its antiviral effects by inducing a number of responsive genes, including the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase, PKR. Here we report that inducible overexpression of functional PKR in murine fibroblasts sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by influenza virus, while in contrast, cells expressing a(More)
The rate of axonal transport of tubulin, actin, and the neurofilament proteins was measured in the peripheral and central projections of the rat L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). [35S]Methionine was injected into the DRG, and the "front" of the radiolabeled protein was located 7, 14, and 20 days postinjection. Transport rates calculated for the neurofilament(More)