Learn More
Most protein phosphatases have little intrinsic substrate specificity, making selective pharmacological inhibition of specific dephosphorylation reactions a challenging problem. In a screen for small molecules that protect cells from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we identified salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate(More)
NF-kappaB is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in immunological responses. During the screening of a plant extract library of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, we found that NF-kappaB activity was potently inhibited by andrographolide (Andro), an abundant component of the plant Andrographis that has been(More)
Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent cellular catabolic mechanism mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and long-lived proteins. Reduction of autophagy activity has been shown to lead to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons and may be involved in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease.(More)
Autophagy functions as an important catabolic mechanism by mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and protein complexes. Although the induction of autophagy by starvation has been extensively studied, we still understand very little about how autophagy is regulated under normal nutritional conditions. Here we describe a study using a small(More)
Members of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes from normal development to tumor growth. Tethered on plasma membrane, these enzymes are potentially regulated by the trafficking machinery of the cells. Here we demonstrate that both MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP are(More)
The genus Coronavirus contains about 25 species of coronaviruses (CoVs), which are important pathogens causing highly prevalent diseases and often severe or fatal in humans and animals. No licensed specific drugs are available to prevent their infection. Different host receptors for cellular entry, poorly conserved structural proteins (antigens), and the(More)
Promoting the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins by inhibiting Hsp90, an important protein chaperone, has been shown to be a promising new anticancer strategy. In this study, we show that an oxazoline analogue of apratoxin A (oz-apraA), a cyclodepsipeptide isolated from a marine cyanobacterium, promotes the degradation of Hsp90 clients through(More)
Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process,(More)