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The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a mammalian host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including retroviruses, alphaviruses and filoviruses, through interaction with the ZAP-responsive elements (ZRE) in viral RNA, and recruiting the exosome to degrade RNA substrate. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a(More)
UNLABELLED Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an approved medication for chronic hepatitis B therapy. Besides acting as an immunomodulator, IFN-α elicits a pleiotropic antiviral state in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocytes, but whether or not IFN-α impedes the late steps of the HBV life cycle, such as HBV secretion, remains elusive. Here we report that(More)
The donkey (Equus asinus) is an important domestic animal that provides a reliable source of protein and method of transportation for many human populations. However, the process of domestication and the dispersal routes of the Chinese donkey are still unclear, as donkey remains are sparse in the archaeological record and often confused with horse remains.(More)
Alpha interferon (IFN-α) is an approved medication for chronic hepatitis B. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is a key mediator of host innate and adaptive antiviral immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vivo. In an effort to elucidate the antiviral mechanism of these cytokines, 37 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are highly inducible in(More)
The Xianbei existed as a remarkable nomadic tribe in northeastern China for three dynasties: the Han, Jin, and Northern-Southern dynasties (206 BC to 581 AD) in Chinese history. A very important subtribe of the Xianbei is the Murong Xianbei. To investigate the genetic structure of the Murong Xianbei population and to address its genetic relationships with(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA is essential to the virus life cycle, its elimination during chronic infection is considered critical to a durable therapy but has not been achieved by current antivirals. Despite being essential, cccDNA has not been the major target of high throughput screening (HTS), largely because of the(More)
The non-structural (NS) proteins of parvoviruses are involved in essential steps of the viral life cycle. Various biochemical functions, such as ATP binding, ATPase, site-specific DNA binding and nicking, and helicase activities, have been assigned to the protein NS1. Compared with the non-structural proteins of the vertebrate parvoviruses, the NS proteins(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) plays a central role in viral infection and persistence and is the basis for viral rebound after the cessation of therapy, as well as the elusiveness of a cure even after extended treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic agents that directly target(More)
Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all(More)
Chronic hepatitis B remains a substantial public health burden affecting approximately 350 million people worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer, and about 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications. Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. As an essential component of the viral life cycle, HBV covalently(More)