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Differential onset of apoptosis in influenza A virus H5N1- and H1N1-infected human blood macrophages.
TLDR
The results showed that the delay in apoptosis onset in macrophages infected by H5N1/97 and its related precursor subtypes may be a means for the pathogens to have longer survival in the cells; this may contribute to the pathogenesis of H 5N1 disease in humans.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Hyperinduction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Response to Avian Influenza Virus H5N1
TLDR
Findings suggest that H5N1/97-mediated hyperinduction of cytokines involves the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which may provide insights into the pathogenesis of H 5N1 disease and rationales for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
A Role for Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase PKR in Mycobacterium-Induced Cytokine Expression1
TLDR
The results showed that BCG stimulates the induction of cytokine expression in human primary blood monocytes including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 and it was demonstrated that downstream of PKR induction is the activation of MAPK and translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus.
A novel small-molecule inhibitor of the avian influenza H5N1 virus determined through computational screening against the neuraminidase.
TLDR
The predicted binding of 1 to the known H5N1 neuraminidase structure indicates a binding interface largely nonoverlapping with that of oseltamivir or another neuraminidsase inhibitor zanamivIR, indicating that 1 or similar molecules would remain effective in the presence of virus mutations conferring resistance to either oselTamiviral or zanAMivir and also vice versa.
RET receptor tyrosine kinase isoforms in kidney function and disease
TLDR
The expression of RET isoforms and its signalling complex, GDNF and GFRα1, in foetal and adult human kidneys is reported and it is shown that GDNF/RET signalling may contribute to proliferation of the collecting duct epithelium in an autocrine/paracrine manner.
Cellular response to influenza virus infection: a potential role for autophagy in CXCL10 and interferon-alpha induction
TLDR
It is demonstrated that autophagy, a tightly regulated homeostatic process for self-digestion of unwanted cellular subcomponents, plays a role in cytokine induction, andAutophagy is induced to a greater extent by H9N2/G1, in association with cytokine hyperinduction, compared with H1N1 and the novel pandemic swine-origin influenza A/H1N 1 viruses.
Role for Nonstructural Protein 1 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Chemokine Dysregulation
TLDR
The results showed that the SARS coronavirus nsp-1 plays an important role in CCL5, CXCL10, and CCL3 expression in human lung epithelial cells via the activation of NF-κB.
HIV-1 transactivator protein induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 contributes to dysregulation of IFN{gamma} signaling.
TLDR
The data suggested a possible mechanism implicating the role of SOCS-2 in mediating HIV-1-induced immune evasion and dysregulation of IFNgamma signaling in primary human monocytes.
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