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BACKGROUND Patients diagnosed as vegetative have periods of wakefulness, but seem to be unaware of themselves or their environment. Although functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that some of these patients are consciously aware, issues of expense and accessibility preclude the use of fMRI assessment in most of these individuals. We aimed to assess(More)
OBJECTIVES Functional neuroimaging has shown that the absence of externally observable signs of consciousness and cognition in severely brain-injured patients does not necessarily indicate the true absence of such abilities. However, relative to traumatic brain injury, nontraumatic injury is known to be associated with a reduced likelihood of regaining(More)
INTRODUCTION Cognitive reserve (CR) reflects the capacity of the brain to endure neuropathology in order to minimize clinical manifestations. Previous studies showed that CR modulates the patterns of brain activity in both healthy and clinical populations. In the present study we sought to determine whether reorganizations of functional brain resources(More)
The vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) states are currently distinguished on the basis of exhibited behaviour rather than underlying pathology. Although previous histopathological studies have documented different degrees of diffuse axonal injury as well as damage to the thalami and brainstem regions in VS and MCS, these differences have not been(More)
Recent developments in functional neuroimaging have provided a number of new tools for assessing patients who clinically appear to be in a vegetative state. These techniques have been able to reveal awareness and even allow rudimentary communication in some patients who remain entirely behaviourally non-responsive. The implications of these results extend(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To study cerebral response in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of speech perception in a sample of patients in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) after traumatic brain injury. METHODS Three patients in VS, four patients in MCS and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. All subjects(More)
Patients in the Vegetative State (VS) do not produce overt motor behavior to command and are therefore considered to be unaware of themselves and of their environments. However, we recently showed that high-density electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to detect covert command-following in some VS patients. Due to its portability and inexpensiveness, EEG(More)
Working memory is frequently impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aimed to investigate working memory deficits in patients with diffuse axonal injury and to determine the contribution of cerebral activation dysfunctions to them. Eighteen patients with severe TBI and 14 healthy controls matched for age and gender were included in(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have working memory deficits and altered patterns of brain activation during this function. The evolution of the impairment has not been examined to date. This study investigated longitudinal changes in brain activation during a working memory task. Twelve patients with severe and diffuse TBI and ten healthy matched(More)