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BACKGROUND The management of metastatic breast cancer requires monitoring of the tumor burden to determine the response to treatment, and improved biomarkers are needed. Biomarkers such as cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and circulating tumor cells have been widely studied. However, circulating cell-free DNA carrying tumor-specific alterations (circulating(More)
Cancers acquire resistance to systemic treatment as a result of clonal evolution and selection. Repeat biopsies to study genomic evolution as a result of therapy are difficult, invasive and may be confounded by intra-tumour heterogeneity. Recent studies have shown that genomic alterations in solid cancers can be characterized by massively parallel(More)
Plasma of cancer patients contains cell-free tumor DNA that carries information on tumor mutations and tumor burden. Individual mutations have been probed using allele-specific assays, but sequencing of entire genes to detect cancer mutations in circulating DNA has not been demonstrated. We developed a method for tagged-amplicon deep sequencing (TAm-Seq)(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of effusions, popliteal cysts, and synovial thickening with knee symptoms in older persons with and without radiographic (XR) osteoarthritis (OA), using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Subjects with and without knee symptoms were recruited from Veterans Affairs and community sources. All had weight-bearing(More)
BACKGROUND The major clinical challenge in the treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the development of progressive resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity resulting from clonal evolution and the emergence of subclonal tumour populations in HGSOC(More)
Mouse mutants have a key role in discerning mammalian gene function and modelling human disease; however, at present mutants exist for only 1-2% of all mouse genes. In order to address this phenotype gap, we have embarked on a genome-wide, phenotype-driven, large-scale N-ethyl-N--nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant mutations of clinical and(More)
Cytotoxic antibodies to antigens specific for leukaemic myeloblasts have been sought in the serum of patients with acute myeloblastic leukaemia treated by immunotherapy with irradiated allogeneic myeloblasts and BCG. Assays of complement- and K-cell-mediated activity were used. Cytotoxicity to allogeneic myeloblasts was detected in both assays. When sera(More)
Circulating tumour DNA analysis can be used to track tumour burden and analyse cancer genomes non-invasively but the extent to which it represents metastatic heterogeneity is unknown. Here we follow a patient with metastatic ER-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer receiving two lines of targeted therapy over 3 years. We characterize genomic architecture(More)
Failure of several putative neuroprotectants in large multicentred clinical trials has re-focussed attention on the predictability of pre-clinical animal models of stroke. Model characterisation and relationship to heterogeneous patient sub-groups remains of paramount importance. Information gained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signatures indicates(More)