Davidson H Hamer

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CONTEXT Improving the accuracy of malaria diagnosis with rapid antigen-detection diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been proposed as an approach for reducing overtreatment of malaria in the current era of widespread implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between use of microscopy and RDT(More)
Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, coastal regions of Europe, and the United States. Severe(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the burden of congenital malaria in newborns in Nigeria. METHODS In a prospective multi-centre study, 1875 consecutive mother-baby pairs were enrolled over a continuous 12-month period. Blood smears were prepared from mothers, neonates, placental aspirates and cord blood within 4 h of delivery. Outcome variables were patent(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the quality of outpatient paediatric malaria case-management approximately 4-6 months after artemether-lumefantrine (AL) replaced sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the nationally recommended first-line therapy in Kenya. METHODS Cross-sectional survey at all government facilities in four Kenyan districts. Main outcome measures were(More)
BACKGROUND Health workers' malaria case-management practices often differ from national guidelines. We assessed whether text-message reminders sent to health workers' mobile phones could improve and maintain their adherence to treatment guidelines for outpatient paediatric malaria in Kenya. METHODS From March 6, 2009, to May 31, 2010, we did a(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations. Zambia is piloting the use of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) by community health workers (CHWs) to treat uncomplicated malaria. Valid concerns about potential overuse of AL could be(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia. DESIGN Cross sectional survey. SETTING Outpatient departments of all government and mission facilities in four districts in Zambia. PARTICIPANTS 944 children with(More)
Medication adherence is essential to successful treatment of HIV/AIDS. Maintaining high adherence will likely prove a major challenge in Africa -- just as it has in developed nations. Despite early reports suggesting that adherence would not pose a major barrier to treatment success, more recent research shows that adherence rates in Africa are quite(More)
Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present(More)