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Microglia are highly motile phagocytic cells that infiltrate and take up residence in the developing brain, where they are thought to provide a surveillance and scavenging function. However, although microglia have been shown to engulf and clear damaged cellular debris after brain insult, it remains less clear what role microglia play in the uninjured(More)
In mammals, receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are divided into three pharmacological classes, which are denoted GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC. GABAC receptors are defined by their insensitivity to the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABAB receptor agonist (-)-baclofen. GABAC receptors probably are a(More)
Microglia are phagocytic cells that infiltrate the brain during development and have a role in the elimination of synapses during brain maturation. Changes in microglial morphology and gene expression have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it remains unknown whether these changes are a primary cause or a secondary consequence of(More)
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serves as a major output of this structure and plays a critical role in the expression of conditioned fear. By combining cell- and tissue-specific pharmacogenetic inhibition with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified circuits downstream of CeA that control fear expression in mice. Selective(More)
The functional expression of the seven-transmembrane domain G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR-4/fusin in rat nerve cell was demonstrated by staining with a polyclonal anti-CXCR-4 Ab, and by evaluating the calcium responses to the physiological agonist stromal-derived cell factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) in both cerebellar granule cells in culture and(More)
1. Combinations of cDNAs encoding mouse and chick nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits were transiently transfected into human BOSC 23 cells, and the expressed receptors were studied by simultaneously recording transmembrane currents and fluorescence transients using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and confocal microscopy with the Ca2+(More)
The mRNA levels of NKCC1, an inwardly directed Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter that facilitates the accumulation of intracellular Cl(-), and of KCC2, an outwardly directed K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that extrudes Cl(-), were studied in surgically resected brain specimens from drug-resistant temporal lobe (TL) epilepsy (TLE) patients. Quantitative RT-PCR(More)
We give here evidence that Purkinje neurons (PNs) of mouse cerebellar slices studied with patch clamp technique combined with laser confocal microscopy, respond to human IL-8 and GROalpha by (i) a cytosolic Ca2+ transient compatible with inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3) formation; (ii) an enhancement of the neurotransmitter release; and (iii) an(More)
We examined the effects of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) on EPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in patch-clamped CA1 pyramidal neurons from rat hippocampal slices. Acute application of CX3CL1 caused a sustained reduction of EPSC amplitude, with partial recovery after washout. CX3CL1-induced EPSC depression is postsynaptic in(More)
We report here that, in cultured cerebellar granule cells, the CXC chemokine GRObeta stimulates the signaling pathway of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and enhances both evoked and spontaneous postsynaptic currents in patch clamped Purkinje neurons from rat cerebellar slices. The GRObeta-induced enhancement of the excitatory post-synaptic(More)