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ATP is released from astrocytes and is involved in the propagation of calcium waves among them. Neuronal ATP secretion is quantal and calcium-dependent, but it has been suggested that ATP release from astrocytes may not be vesicular. Here we report that, besides the described basal ATP release facilitated by exposure to calcium-free medium, astrocytes(More)
SNAP-25 is a component of the SNARE complex implicated in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate that hippocampal GABAergic synapses, both in culture and in brain, lack SNAP-25 and are resistant to the action of botulinum toxins type A and E, which cleave this SNARE protein. Relative to glutamatergic neurons, which express SNAP-25,(More)
Several genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with or without epilepsy have been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. Here we report a Q555X mutation in synapsin 1 (SYN1), an X-linked gene encoding for a neuron-specific phosphoprotein implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. This(More)
Synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a component of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex which plays a central role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that adult rat hippocampal GABAergic synapses, both in culture and in brain, are virtually(More)
In addition to its primary role as a fundamental component of the SNARE complex, SNAP-25 also modulates voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in various overexpression systems. Although these studies suggest a potential negative regulatory role of SNAP-25 on VGCC activity, the effects of endogenous SNAP-25 on native VGCC function in neurons are unclear. In(More)
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a SNARE protein that regulates neurotransmission by the formation of a complex with syntaxin 1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP2. SNAP-25 also reduces neuronal calcium responses to stimuli, but neither the functional relevance nor the molecular mechanisms of this modulation have been clarified. In this study, we(More)
Botulinum toxins are metalloproteases that act inside nerve terminals and block neurotransmitter release via their activity directed specifically on SNARE proteins. This review summarizes data on botulinum toxin modes of binding, sites of action, and biochemical activities. Their use in cell biology and neuroscience is considered, as well as their(More)
Neurons are examples of specialized cells that evolved the extraordinary ability to transmit electrochemical information in complex networks of interconnected cells. During their development, neurons undergo precisely regulated processes that define their lineage, positioning, morphogenesis and pattern of activity. The events leading to the establishment of(More)
SNAP-25 is a key component of the synaptic-vesicle fusion machinery, involved in several psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and ADHD. SNAP-25 protein expression is lower in different brain areas of schizophrenic patients and in ADHD mouse models. How the reduced expression of SNAP-25 alters the properties of synaptic transmission, leading to a(More)
Intrinsic homeostasis enables neuronal circuits to maintain activity levels within an appropriate range by modulating neuronal voltage-gated conductances, but the signalling pathways involved in this process are largely unknown. We characterized the process of intrinsic homeostasis induced by sustained electrical activity in cultured hippocampal neurons(More)