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Central Asia is a vast region at the crossroads of different habitats, cultures, and trade routes. Little is known about the genetics and the history of the population of this region. We present the analysis of mtDNA control-region sequences in samples of the Kazakh, the Uighurs, the lowland Kirghiz, and the highland Kirghiz, which we have used to address(More)
Genetic diversity in Europe has been interpreted as a reflection of phenomena occurring during the Paleolithic ( approximately 45,000 years before the present [BP]), Mesolithic ( approximately 18,000 years BP), and Neolithic ( approximately 10,000 years BP) periods. A crucial role of the Neolithic demographic transition is supported by the analysis of most(More)
This study helps to clarify the debate on the Western and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asia. Thirty-six skeletal remains from Kazakhstan (Central Asia), excavated from different sites dating between the fifteenth century BC to the fifth century AD, have been analysed for the hypervariable control region (HVR-I) and haplogroup diagnostic single(More)
Eight Y-linked short-tandem-repeat polymorphisms (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) were analyzed in four populations of Central Asia, comprising two lowland samples-Uighurs and lowland Kirghiz-and two highland samples-namely, the Kazakhs (altitude 2,500 m above sea level) and highland Kirghiz (altitude 3,200 m above sea(More)
The analysis of population structure may lead to inferences about demographic phenomena. In particular, regions of sharp genetic differentiation suggest the existence of factors that impaired gene flow and increased the evolutionary role of genetic drift. Here, we present an analysis of a data set of 10 allele frequencies in 39 populations of the(More)
The geographic structure of Y-chromosome variability has been analyzed in native populations of South America, through use of the high-frequency Native American haplogroup defined by the DYS199-T allele and six Y-chromosome-linked microsatellites (DYS19, DYS389A, DYS389B, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393), analyzed in 236 individuals. The following pattern of(More)
We analyzed mtDNA sequence variation in 590 individuals from 18 south Amerindian populations. The spatial pattern of mtDNA diversity in these populations fits well the model proposed on the basis of Y-chromosome data. We found evidence of a differential action of genetic drift and gene flow in western and eastern populations, which has led to genetic(More)
We analyze the geographic location of 77,451 different Italian surnames (17,579,891 individuals) obtained from the lists of telephone subscribers of the year 1993. By using a specific neural network analysis (Self-Organizing Maps, SOMs), we automatically identify the geographic origin of 49,117 different surnames. To validate the methodology, we compare the(More)
A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the(More)