Learn More
BACKGROUND In the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may decrease ventilator-induced lung injury by keeping lung regions open that otherwise would be collapsed. Since the effects of PEEP probably depend on the recruitability of lung tissue, we conducted a study to examine the relationship between the(More)
RATIONALE Lung injury caused by a ventilator results from nonphysiologic lung stress (transpulmonary pressure) and strain (inflated volume to functional residual capacity ratio). OBJECTIVES To determine whether plateau pressure and tidal volume are adequate surrogates for stress and strain, and to quantify the stress to strain relationship in patients and(More)
INTRODUCTION In order to improve the efficiency of heat moisture exchangers (HMEs), new hybrid humidifiers (active HMEs) that add water and heat to HMEs have been developed. In this study we evaluated the efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo, of a new active HME (the Performer; StarMed, Mirandola, Italy) as compared with that of existing HMEs (Hygroster(More)
Ventilator-induced lung injury is a side-effect of mechanical ventilation. Its prevention or attenuation implies knowledge of the sequence of events that lead from mechanical stress to lung inflammation and stress at rupture. A literature review was undertaken which focused on the link between the mechanical forces in the diseased lung and the resulting(More)
We examined the hypothesis that injurious ventilatory strategies (large tidal volume [VT] and/or low positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]) would increase release of inflammatory mediators into the lung and into the systemic circulation in a lung injury model. Lung injury was induced in 40 anesthetized paralyzed Sprague-Dawley rats (350 +/- 2 g) by(More)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be derived from two pathogenetic pathways: a direct insult on lung cells (pulmonary ARDS (ARDSp)) or indirectly (extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSexp)). This review reports and discusses differences in biochemical activation, histology, morphological aspects, respiratory mechanics and response to different ventilatory(More)
The importance of chest wall elastance in characterizing acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and in setting mechanical ventilation is increasingly recognized. Nearly 30% of patients admitted to a general intensive care unit have an abnormal high intra-abdominal pressure (due to ascites, bowel edema, ileus), which leads to an(More)
INTRODUCTION Intra-abdominal hypertension is common in critically ill patients and is associated with increased severity of organ failure and mortality. The techniques most commonly used to estimate intra-abdominal pressure are measurements of bladder and gastric pressures. The bladder technique requires that the bladder be infused with a certain amount of(More)
INTRODUCTION End expiratory lung volume (EELV) measurement in the clinical setting is routinely performed using the helium dilution technique. A ventilator that implements a simplified version of the nitrogen washout/washin technique is now available. We compared the EELV measured by spiral computed tomography (CT) taken as gold standard with the lung(More)
INTRODUCTION This study sought to assess whether the use of thoraco-pelvic supports during prone positioning in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) improves, deteriorates or leaves unmodified gas exchange, hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics. METHODS We studied 11 patients with ALI/ARDS, sedated and paralyzed,(More)