Davida S. Smyth

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Phenotypic biotyping has traditionally been used to differentiate bacteria occupying distinct ecological niches such as host species. For example, the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus from sheep to coagulate ruminant plasma, reported over 60 years ago, led to the description of small ruminant and bovine S. aureus ecovars. The great majority of small(More)
Production of icaADBC-encoded polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, or poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PIA/PNAG), represents an important biofilm mechanism in staphylococci. We previously described a glucose-induced, ica-independent biofilm mechanism in four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Here, biofilm regulation by NaCl and glucose(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine whether prior vancomycin use (within 30 days) in patients who develop methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is associated with isolates of reduced vancomycin susceptibility and killing in vitro. METHODS Thirty-eight MRSA from previously vancomycin-treated patients and 43 MRSA from vancomycin-naive(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of man, but is also able to colonize and cause disease in a wide variety of mammals and birds. An extended multilocus sequencing approach, involving multilocus sequence typing (MLST), sas typing, spa typing and agr typing, was used to examine the molecular diversity of 118 S. aureus isolates recovered from a(More)
In recent years several new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been described, which currently have largely unknown frequencies of occurrence and roles in human or animal disease. One hundred and ninety-one Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows (99), goats (39), sheep (23), rabbits (15), chickens (15) and a cat (1) were screened for SE genes sea-see,(More)
A common clone (ET3) of Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large proportion of cases of bovine mastitis and occasionally causes zoonotic infections of humans. In the present study, we report the identification of a virulent clonal subtype (ST151) of ET3, which resulted in increased tissue damage and mortality in a mouse model of mastitis. ST151 has(More)
A survey of chromosomal variation in the ST239 clonal group of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) revealed a novel genetic element, ICE6013. The element is 13,354 bp in length, excluding a 6,551-bp Tn552 insertion. ICE6013 is flanked by 3-bp direct repeats and is demarcated by 8-bp imperfect inverted repeats. The element was present in 6 of(More)
Since the year 2000, linezolid has been used in the United States to treat infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-positive cocci. At present, linezolid-resistant (Linr) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are rare and the diversity of their genetic backgrounds is unknown. We performed sequence-based strain typing and(More)
The current study identified bacterial factors that may improve management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were obtained from 386 patients enrolled in a randomized, controlled study of antibiotic efficacy. Isolates were screened for production of virulence factors and for vancomycin susceptibility. After(More)
The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal group known as ST239-MRSA-III is notable for its hybrid origin and for causing sustained hospital epidemics worldwide since the late 1970s. We studied the population structure of this MRSA clonal group using a sample of 111 isolates that were collected over 34 years from 29 countries. Genetic(More)