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Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating(More)
Botnets have become one of the major threats on the Internet for serving as a vector for carrying attacks against organizations and committing cybercrimes. They are used to generate spam, carry out DDOS attacks and click-fraud, and steal sensitive information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for characterizing and detecting botnets using network(More)
  • Jianmin Wang, Charles G Mullighan, +18 authors Jinghui Zhang
  • 2011
We developed 'clipping reveals structure' (CREST), an algorithm that uses next-generation sequencing reads with partial alignments to a reference genome to directly map structural variations at the nucleotide level of resolution. Application of CREST to whole-genome sequencing data from five pediatric T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) and a(More)
The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was(More)
Spontaneous waves of excitation in the developing mammalian retina are mediated, to a large extent, by neurotransmission. However, it is unclear how the underlying neurotransmitter systems interact with each other to play specific roles in the formation of retinal waves at various developmental stages. In particular, it is puzzling why the waves maintain a(More)
Retinoic acid, a developmental signal implicated in the formation of the neural axis, is present at high levels in the early embryonic trunk region, where it is synthesized by a novel dehydrogenase. Here we show that the same enzyme is inducible by retinoic acid in P19 teratocarcinoma cells, and we report the cloning from P19 cells of a cDNA encoding a(More)
Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas.(More)
H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which more than a thousand birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical(More)