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The gaseous phytohormone ethylene C(2)H(4) mediates numerous aspects of growth and development. Genetic analysis has identified a number of critical elements in ethylene signaling, but how these elements interact biochemically to transduce the signal from the ethylene receptor complex at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to transcription factors in(More)
Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives "exhausted" virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we(More)
Nerve injury, a significant cause of disability, may be treated more effectively using nerve guidance channels containing longitudinally aligned fibers. Aligned, electrospun nanofibers direct the neurite growth of immortalized neural stem cells, demonstrating potential for directing regenerating neurites. However, no study of neurite guidance on these(More)
Bacteria secrete peptides and proteins to communicate, to poison competitors, and to manipulate host cells. Among the various protein-translocation machineries, the peptidase-containing ATP-binding cassette transporters (PCATs) are appealingly simple. Each PCAT contains two peptidase domains that cleave the secretion signal from the substrate, two(More)
In eukaryotes, ubiquitination is an important posttranslational process achieved through a cascade of ubiquitin-activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligase (E3) enzymes. Many pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into the host cell that function as E3 ligases. How these bacterial "Trojan horses" integrate into the eukaryotic ubiquitin system has(More)
Many microbial pathogens deliver effector proteins via the type III secretion system into infected host cells. Elucidating the function of these effectors is essential for our understanding of pathogenesis. Here, we describe biochemical and structural characterization of an effector protein (NleL) from Escherichia coli O157:H7, a widespread pathogen causing(More)
An s-graph is a graph with two kinds of edges: subdivisible edges and real edges. A realisation of an s-graph B is any graph obtained by subdividing subdivisible edges of B into paths of arbitrary length (at least one). Given an s-graph B, we study the decision problem Π B whose instance is a graph G and question is " Does G contain a realisation of B as an(More)
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification in which one or more 76 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitin molecules are covalently linked to the lysine residues of target proteins. Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including the cell-cycle, vesicle trafficking, antigen(More)
This is a case report of a unique presentation of a mild form of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (type IA) in a 9-year-old African-American boy who presented with simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fractures. The boy presented to the authors' emergency room complaining of acute bilateral knee pain. He could not perform a straight leg raise. Other(More)
The possibility of the release of smallpox virus into a predominantly nonimmunized population highlights the importance of understanding poxvirus biology. Poxviruses encode a conserved pathway that is required to oxidize disulfide bonds in nascent viral proteins that fold in the reducing environment of the eukaryotic host cytoplasm. We present the structure(More)