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Facial expression is widely used as a measure of pain in infants; whether nonhuman animals display such pain expressions has never been systematically assessed. We developed the mouse grimace scale (MGS), a standardized behavioral coding system with high accuracy and reliability; assays involving noxious stimuli of moderate duration are accompanied by(More)
Mutagenic abasic (AP) sites are generated directly by DNA-damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases acting in base excision repair. AP sites are corrected via incision by AP endonucleases, removal of deoxyribose 5-phosphate, repair synthesis, and ligation. Mammalian DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta) carries out most base excision repair synthesis and also can(More)
UNLABELLED OBJECTIVE To determine the percentage of time that intensive care unit (ICU) nurses spend on documentation and other nursing activities before and after installation of a third-generation ICU information system. DESIGN Prospective data collection using real-time time-motion analysis, before and after installation of the ICU information system.(More)
BACKGROUND Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects the skin, muscle, and lung. The pathogenesis of skin inflammation in DM is not well understood. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS We analyzed genome-wide expression data in DM skin and compared them to those from healthy controls. We observed a robust upregulation of interferon(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of different postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and their associated risk factors in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] < or = 1.2 L and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 75%) undergoing noncardiothoracic operations.(More)
The authors attempted to simultaneously measure cardiac output by thermodilution (COtd), thoracic bioimpedance (CObi), and suprasternal Doppler ultrasound (COdopp) in 68 patients. Subgroups separately compared included patients whose lungs were mechanically ventilated, patients undergoing cardiac surgery, aortic surgery, patients with dysrhythmias, and(More)
The authors examined the effect of clonidine, a preferential alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, upon narcotic requirements, hemodynamics, and adrenergic responses during the perioperative period in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Anesthesia was provided by sufentanil supplemented with isoflurane; sodium nitroprusside was given as needed for hemodynamic control.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine cardiac output from measurements of CO2 production (VCO2), and arterial (SaO2) and mixed venous (SvO2) oxygen saturations, using a modified Fick equation, in which cardiac output = VCO2/[k (SaO2 - SvO2)], where k represents a constant. DESIGN A metabolic measurement cart was used to measure VCO2 and oxygen consumption (VO2) at 3-min(More)
Adenine-DNA glycosylase MutY of Escherichia coli catalyzes the cleavage of adenine when mismatched with 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (GO), an oxidatively damaged base. The biological outcome is the prevention of C/G-->A/T transversions. The molecular mechanism of base excision repair (BER) of A/GO in mammals is not well understood. In this study we report(More)