David Williams

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Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. Here we present analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and new families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent(More)
Although the basal ganglia play an important role in self-generated movement, their involvement in externally paced voluntary movement is less clear. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the region of the subthalamic nuclei of eight patients with Parkinson's disease during the performance of a warned reaction time task in which an imperative cue(More)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-associated follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia as a mechanism of thyroid carcinogenesis in mice and rats G. A mechanistic relationship between thyroid follicular cell tumours and hepatocellular neoplasms in rodents Human renal-cell carcinoma—epidemiological and mechanistic aspects A. Mellemgaard Human renal(More)
Functional neurosurgery in patients with movement disorders has provided a unique opportunity to record directly form the human basal ganglia (BG) and to thereby further our understanding of these 'dark basements of the mind.' Two possibilities exist: either single unit and local field potential (LFP) recordings can be made intra-operatively through(More)
We test the hypothesis that interaction between the human basal ganglia and cerebral cortex involves activity in multiple functional circuits characterized by their frequency of oscillation, phase characteristics, dopamine dependency and topography. To this end we took recordings from macroelectrodes (MEs) inserted into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in(More)
The cysteinyl leukotrienes-leukotriene C4(LTC4), leukotriene D4(LTD4) and leukotriene E4(LTE4)-are important mediators of human bronchial asthma. Pharmacological studies have determined that cysteinyl leukotrienes activate at least two receptors, designated CysLT1 and CysLT2. The CysLT1-selective antagonists, such as montelukast (Singulair), zafirlukast(More)
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a multilayered cell wall composed of an outer layer of proteins glycosylated with N- or O-linked mannosyl residues and an inner skeletal layer of beta-glucans and chitin. We demonstrate that cytokine production by human mononuclear cells or murine macrophages was markedly reduced when stimulated by C. albicans(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts >1 million people in North America. Current treatments focused on dopamine-replacement strategies ultimately fail in most patients because of loss of efficacy and severe adverse effects that worsen as the disease progresses. The recent success of surgical approaches suggests that a(More)
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) detect molecular signatures of microbes and initiate immune responses to infection. Prototypical PRRs such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signal via a conserved pathway to induce innate response genes. In contrast, the signaling pathways engaged by other classes of putative PRRs remain ill defined. Here, we demonstrate(More)