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To determine if lateral phase separation occurs in films of pulmonary surfactant, we used epifluorescence microscopy and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to study spread films of calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Both microscopic methods demonstrated that compression produced domains of liquid-condensed lipids surrounded by a liquid-expanded film. The(More)
Biomaterial-associated infections occur on both permanent implants and temporary devices for restoration or support of human functions. Despite increasing use of biomaterials in an aging society, comparatively few biomaterials have been designed that effectively reduce the incidence of biomaterial-associated infections. This review provides design(More)
Drug candidate and toxicity screening processes currently rely on results from early-stage in vitro cell-based assays expected to faithfully represent essential aspects of in vivo pharmacology and toxicology. Several in vitro designs are optimized for high throughput to benefit screening efficiencies, allowing the entire libraries of potential(More)
Self-assembly of thiol-terminated single-stranded DNA (HS-ssDNA) on gold has served as an important model system for DNA immobilization at surfaces. Here, we report a detailed study of the surface composition and structure of mixed self-assembled DNA monolayers containing a short alkylthiol surface diluent [11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MCU)] on gold supports.(More)
The foreign body response (FBR) comprises a general, ubiquitous host tissue-based reaction to implanted materials. In vitro cell-based models are frequently employed to study FBR mechanisms involving cell signaling responses to materials. However, these models often study only one cell type, identify only limited signals, and cannot accurately represent the(More)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 µm in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein one, central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid(More)
BACKGROUND In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of(More)
Nanotechnology has grown from a scientific interest to a major industry with both commodity and specialty nanomaterial exposure to global populations and ecosystems. Sub-micron materials are currently used in a wide variety of consumer products and in clinical trials as drug delivery carriers and imaging agents. Due to the expected growth in this field and(More)
The increasing clinical incidence and host risk of biomaterial-centered infections, as well as the reduced effectiveness of clinically relevant antibiotics to treat such infections, provide compelling reasons to develop new approaches for treating implanted biomaterials in a surgical context. We describe the direct local delivery of polyclonal human(More)
The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in severe burn wound patients is infection. Treatment of burn wound infection is complicated by the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. A potential therapeutic alternative to antibiotic drugs is the local administration of polyclonal antibodies, termed passive local immunotherapy (PLI), directly to the(More)