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BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Progesterone has been shown to improve neurologic outcome in multiple experimental models and two early-phase trials involving patients with TBI. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, multicenter clinical trial in which patients with severe, moderate-to-severe, or(More)
Drugs of abuse are commonly co-abused, and frequently these combinations produce effects which cannot be predicted by studying the effects of the individual drugs. To investigate the behavioral interactions which occur following combinations of cocaine plus amphetamine or cocaine plus morphine, rats were trained to respond under a differential reinforcement(More)
AIMS To profile site of stroke/cerebrovascular accident, type and extent of field loss, treatment options, and outcome. METHODS Prospective multicentre cohort trial. Standardised referral and investigation protocol of visual parameters. RESULTS 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69 years (SD 14). 479 patients (52%) had visual field loss. 51(More)
Progesterone given after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to reduce the initial cytotoxic surge of inflammatory factors. We used Western blot techniques to analyze how progesterone might affect three inflammation-related factors common to TBI: complement factor C3 (C3), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and nuclear factor kappa beta(More)
P ractice guidelines for physicians who treat children with brain trauma are long overdue. A significant barrier to producing guidelines has been the lack of data from well-designed, controlled studies that address each specific juncture of the acute treatment phase. Our goal with this document was to assimilate the scarce data that exist and present it(More)
In this article, we review published preclinical and epidemiologic studies that examine progesterone's role in the central nervous system. Its effects on the reproductive and endocrine systems are well known, but a large and growing body of evidence, including a recently published pilot clinical trial, indicates that the hormone also exerts neuroprotective(More)