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We know very little about physiological constraints on the evolution of life-history traits in general, and, in particular, about physiological and molecular adjustments that accompany the evolution of variation in lifespan. Identifying mechanisms that underlie adaptive variation in lifespan should provide insight into the evolution of trade-offs between(More)
Recent studies of several species have reported a latitudinal cline in the circadian clock gene, Clock, which influences rhythms in both physiology and behavior. Latitudinal variation in this gene may hence reflect local adaptation to seasonal variation. In some bird populations, there is also an among-individual association between Clock poly-Q genotype(More)
We examined whether strategies of reproductive allocation may reduce long-term immunocompetence through the effects of manipulated effort on secondary or acquired immunity. We tested whether increased reproductive effort leads to reduced immune function and survival by manipulating brood size in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and exposing breeding(More)
The phylogeny of swallows was reconstructed by comparing segments of three genes, nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 (betafib7), mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb), and mitochondrial ND2, in a variety of combinations using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. betafib7 was sequenced for 47 species, cytb for 74 species, and ND2 for 61 species to yield(More)
Citizen-science projects engage volunteers to gather or process data to address scientific questions. But citizen-science projects vary in their ability to contribute usefully for science, conservation, or public policy. eBird has evolved from a basic citizen-science project into a collective enterprise, taking a novel approach to citizen science by(More)
Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association(More)
Seasonal migration in birds is known to be highly labile and subject to rapid change in response to selection, such that researchers have hypothesized that phylogenetic relationships should neither predict nor constrain the migratory behaviour of a species. Many theories on the evolution of bird migration assume a framework that extant migratory species(More)
Across North America, tree swallows have advanced their mean date of clutch initiation (lay date) by approximately 9 days over the past 30 years, apparently in response to climate change. In a sample of 2,881 nest records collected by the lay public from 1959 to 1991, we examined whether clutch size has also responded to climate change. We found that clutch(More)
To set the stage for historical analyses of the ecology and behavior of tree swallows and their allies (genus Tachycineta), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the nine Tachycineta species by comparing DNA sequences of six mitochondrial genes: Cytochrome b (990 base pairs), the second subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (839 base(More)