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The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps that accomplish this transformation also confer detergent(More)
The LIPID MAPS Structure Database (LMSD) is a relational database encompassing structures and annotations of biologically relevant lipids. Structures of lipids in the database come from four sources: (i) LIPID MAPS Consortium's core laboratories and partners; (ii) lipids identified by LIPID MAPS experiments; (iii) computationally generated structures for(More)
The mevalonate pathway produces cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as geranylgeraniol. In the brain, a fraction of cholesterol is metabolized in neurons by the enzyme cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, and this depletion activates the mevalonate pathway. Brains from mice lacking 24-hydroxylase excrete cholesterol more slowly, and the tissue compensates by(More)
DNA mismatches that occur between vector homology arms and chromosomal target sequences reduce gene targeting frequencies in several species; however, this has not been reported in human cells. Here we demonstrate that even a single mismatched base pair can significantly decrease human gene targeting frequencies. In addition, we show that homology arm(More)
Achieving transgene integration into preselected genomic sites is currently one of the central tasks in stem cell gene therapy. A strategy to mediate such targeted integration involves site-specific endonucleases. Two genomic sites within the MBS85 and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) genes (AAVS1 and CCR5 zinc-finger nuclease (CCR5-ZFN) sites,(More)
Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP46A1) that is selectively expressed in the brain and is responsible for the majority of cholesterol turnover in the central nervous system. Mice deficient in 24-hydroxylase exhibit impaired learning and defective hippocampal long-term potentiation, suggesting that the metabolism of cholesterol by this(More)
  • Jonathan E. Grim, Michael P. Gustafson, Roli K. Hirata, Amanda C. Hagar, Jherek Swanger, Markus Welcker +4 others
  • 2008
The SCF(FBW7) ubiquitin ligase degrades proteins involved in cell division, growth, and differentiation and is commonly mutated in cancers. The Fbw7 locus encodes three protein isoforms that occupy distinct subcellular localizations, suggesting that each has unique functions. We used gene targeting to create isoform-specific Fbw7-null mutations in human(More)
The steroid 5alpha-reductase (SRD5A) family of enzymes produces steroid hormones that regulate male sexual development. Now, Cantagrel et al. (2010) identify a member of this family, SRD5A3, as a polyprenol reductase with a crucial role in N-linked protein glycosylation and pinpoint SRD5A3 mutations as the cause of a rare Mendelian disease.
Understanding mechanisms of gene regulation has broad therapeutic implications for human disease. Here we describe a novel method for generating human cell lines that serve as reporters of transcriptional activity. This method exploits the ability of recombinant adeno-associated virus to mediate the insertion of exogenous DNA sequences into specific genomic(More)