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Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors that have little or no acute toxicity. We show that normal mice and mice with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after neonatal injection of an AAV vector expressing b-glucuronidase. AAV proviruses were isolated from four tumors and were all located(More)
The mevalonate pathway produces cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as geranylgeraniol. In the brain, a fraction of cholesterol is metabolized in neurons by the enzyme cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, and this depletion activates the mevalonate pathway. Brains from mice lacking 24-hydroxylase excrete cholesterol more slowly, and the tissue compensates by(More)
The LIPID MAPS Structure Database (LMSD) is a relational database encompassing structures and annotations of biologically relevant lipids. Structures of lipids in the database come from four sources: (i) LIPID MAPS Consortium's core laboratories and partners; (ii) lipids identified by LIPID MAPS experiments; (iii) computationally generated structures for(More)
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps that accomplish this transformation also confer detergent(More)
Female mice deficient in steroid 5␣-reductase type 1 have a decreased litter size. The average litter in homozygous deficient females is 2.7 pups vs. 8.0 pups in wild type controls. Oogenesis, fertilization, implantation, and placental morphology appear normal in the mutant animals. Fetal loss occurs between gestation days 10.75 and 11.0 commensurate with a(More)
Adult stem cells offer the potential to treat many diseases through a combination of ex vivo genetic manipulation and autologous transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, also referred to as marrow stromal cells) are adult stem cells that can be isolated as proliferating, adherent cells from bones. MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell types(More)
DNA mismatches that occur between vector homology arms and chromosomal target sequences reduce gene targeting frequencies in several species; however, this has not been reported in human cells. Here we demonstrate that even a single mismatched base pair can significantly decrease human gene targeting frequencies. In addition, we show that homology arm(More)
Dihydrotestosterone is a potent androgen metabolite formed from testosterone by action of 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Mutations in the type 2 isoenzyme cause a disorder of 46,XY sex development, termed 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency and that was described forty years ago. Many mutations in the encoding gene have been reported in different ethnic groups. In(More)
Type I interferon (IFN) protects against viruses, yet it also has a poorly understood suppressive influence on inflammation. Here, we report that activated mouse macrophages lacking the IFN-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and that are unable to produce the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) overproduce inflammatory interleukin-1(More)