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Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors that have little or no acute toxicity. We show that normal mice and mice with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after neonatal injection of an AAV vector expressing b-glucuronidase. AAV proviruses were isolated from four tumors and were all located(More)
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps that accomplish this transformation also confer detergent(More)
The LIPID MAPS Structure Database (LMSD) is a relational database encompassing structures and annotations of biologically relevant lipids. Structures of lipids in the database come from four sources: (i) LIPID MAPS Consortium's core laboratories and partners; (ii) lipids identified by LIPID MAPS experiments; (iii) computationally generated structures for(More)
The mevalonate pathway produces cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as geranylgeraniol. In the brain, a fraction of cholesterol is metabolized in neurons by the enzyme cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, and this depletion activates the mevalonate pathway. Brains from mice lacking 24-hydroxylase excrete cholesterol more slowly, and the tissue compensates by(More)
The conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone by steroid 5 alpha-reductase is a key reaction in androgen action, and is essential both for the formation of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for androgen-mediated growth of tissues such as the prostate. Single gene defects that impair this conversion lead to pseudohermaphroditism in which(More)
A monkey cDNA (pDTS) encoding a diphtheria toxin (DT) sensitivity determinant was isolated by expression cloning in mouse L-M cells. Mouse cells are naturally resistant to DT, because they lack functional cell surface receptors for the toxin. Unlike wild-type L-M cells, pDTS-transfected mouse cells are extremely toxin sensitive and specifically bind(More)
Female mice deficient in steroid 5alpha-reductase type 1 have a decreased litter size. The average litter in homozygous deficient females is 2.7 pups vs. 8.0 pups in wild type controls. Oogenesis, fertilization, implantation, and placental morphology appear normal in the mutant animals. Fetal loss occurs between gestation days 10.75 and 11.0 commensurate(More)
Adult stem cells offer the potential to treat many diseases through a combination of ex vivo genetic manipulation and autologous transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, also referred to as marrow stromal cells) are adult stem cells that can be isolated as proliferating, adherent cells from bones. MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell types(More)
Mutations in methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) cause Rett Syndrome, the most severe autism spectrum disorder. Re-expressing Mecp2 in symptomatic Mecp2 null mice dramatically improves function and longevity, providing hope that therapeutic intervention is possible in humans. To identify pathways in disease pathology for therapeutic intervention, a(More)