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Mice lacking the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor EPAS1 die at mid-gestation. Despite normal morphological development of the circulatory system, EPAS1-deficient mice display pronounced bradycardia. In addition to the vascular endothelium, EPAS1 is expressed intensively in the organ of Zuckerkandl (OZ), the principle source of catecholamine production(More)
Genomic DNA encompassing the terminal exons of the gene for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor was isolated from J.D., a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia whose receptor fails to cluster in coated pits. The DNA sequence revealed a substitution of a cysteine codon for a tyrosine codon at residue 807 in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor.(More)
The 50-residue cytoplasmic domain of the low density lipoprotein receptor (amino acids 790-839) directs the receptor to coated pits, thereby facilitating rapid endocytosis of bound low density lipoprotein. To determine the structural features required for this targeting, we produced 24 mutations in the cytoplasmic domain through use of(More)
The turnover of cholesterol in the brain is thought to occur via conversion of excess cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol that is readily secreted from the central nervous system into the plasma. To gain molecular insight into this pathway of cholesterol metabolism, we used expression cloning to isolate cDNAs that encode murine and human(More)
The conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver represents the major catabolic pathway for the removal of cholesterol from the body. In this complex biosynthetic pathway, at least 10 enzymes modify both the ring structure and side chain of cholesterol, resulting in the formation of the primary bile acids, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid.(More)
The conversion of vitamin D into an active ligand for the vitamin D receptor requires 25-hydroxylation in the liver and 1alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney. Mitochondrial and microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzymes catalyze the first reaction. The mitochondrial activity is associated with sterol 27-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP27A1); however, the(More)
The conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols is required for the synthesis of wax monoesters and ether lipids. The mammalian enzymes that synthesize fatty alcohols have not been identified. Here, an in silico approach was used to discern two putative reductase enzymes designated FAR1 and FAR2. Expression studies in intact cells showed that FAR1 and FAR2(More)
The molecular size of the plasma LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptor synthesized by cultured fibroblasts from a patient with the internalization-defective form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH 274) was smaller by 10,000 daltons than the size of the normal LDL receptor. The segment of the gene encoding the truncated portion of the FH 274 receptor was(More)