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As pest species may evolve resistance to chemical controls, they may also evolve resistance to cultural control methods. Yearly rotation of corn (Zea mays) with another crop interrupts the life cycle of the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), but behavioral resistance to crop rotation is now a major(More)
The percentage of viable eggs of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, which survived to the adult stage was evaluated for the effect of egg density in 2005 and 2007 in central Missouri. In 2005, each plot was 2.44 by 3.05 m and contained 64 maize (corn), Zea mays L., plants. In 2007, plots were 3.05 by 3.05 m and again(More)
The use of mixtures of transgenic insecticidal seed and nontransgenic seed to provide an in-field refuge for susceptible insects in insect-resistance-management (IRM) plans has been considered for at least two decades. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has only recently authorized the practice. This commentary explores issues that(More)
A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn(More)
A simulation model of the temporal and spatial dynamics and population genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created to evaluate the use of block refuges and seed blends in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn (Zea mays L.). This Bt corn expresses one transgenic corn event, DAS-59122-7, that(More)
A simulation model of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was used to investigate whether sampling and economic thresholds can improve integrated pest management (IPM) and insect resistance management (IRM) when transgenic insecticidal crops are used for insect pest management. When transgenic corn killed at least 80% of(More)
We simulated the population dynamics and population genetics of two bivoltine species of corn borers, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, in a hypothetical region of irrigated transgenic and nontransgenic corn where insecticide was applied only to the nontransgenic refuge crop.(More)
Negative cross-resistance (NCR) toxins that hitherto have not been thought to have practical uses may indeed be useful in the management of resistance alleles. Practical applications of NCR for pest management have been limited (i) by the scarcity of high toxicity NCR toxins among pesticides, (ii) by the lack of systematic methodologies to discover and(More)
In 1996, two searchable databases covering insect pathogens were posted on the World Wide Web: the Ecological Database of the World's Insect Pathogens (EDWIP) and the Viral Diseases of Insects in the Literature database (VIDIL). In this paper, we describe the format and contents of EDWIP and VIDIL on the World Wide Web. EDWIP contains over 9,400(More)
Dispersal of neonate European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in seed mixtures of transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bt+) and nontransgenic corn (Bt-) was evaluated in a 2-yr field study. The main objective was to determine if larval dispersal limits the effectiveness of seed mixtures as a resistance management strategy. Mixtures evaluated(More)