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A distinct subpopulation of bipolar cells in macaque monkey retina was labeled with antisera that recognize glycine-extended cholecystokinin precursors. The labeled bipolar cells were found throughout the retina and had dendrites contacting a subpopulation of cone pedicles and axons ramifying in the fifth stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Several lines(More)
PURPOSE Early visual defects in degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) may arise from phased remodeling of the neural retina. The authors sought to explore the functional expression of ionotropic (iGluR) and group 3, type 6 metabotropic (mGluR6) glutamate receptors in late-stage photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS Excitation mapping with(More)
In primates, the retinal ganglion cells that project to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus have distinctive responses to light, and one of these has been identified morphologically as the parasol ganglion cell. To investigate their synaptic connections, we injected parasol cells with Neurobiotin in lightly fixed baboon retinas. The(More)
The short wavelength-sensitive (blue) cone bipolar cells was found to have a nonrandom distribution by analyzing the nearest neighbors and by calculating the density recovery profile (DRP). Blue cones had been shown previously to have a nonrandom distribution (Curcio et al., 1991). The relationship between the two arrays was then analyzed by calculating the(More)
The axon terminals of cone horizontal cells in the goldfish retina form typical chemical synaptic contacts in the middle of the inner nuclear layer. Approximately 60% of the identified postsynaptic elements were perikarya, axons and dendrites of bipolar cells. The other identified postsynaptic elements were perikarya and processes of interplexiform cells.(More)
Serotonin is a modulatory neurotransmitter that produces many of the cellular changes associated with sensitization of reflexes in Aplysia. These changes have been carefully documented in sensory neurons located in the abdominal ganglion that mediate the gill-siphon withdrawal reflex and in sensory neurons located in the pleural ganglion that mediate the(More)
Midget ganglion cells in the foveal slope, parafovea, near periphery and far periphery of human and monkey retinas have been studied by electron microscopy (EM). Five human foveal ganglion cells were reconstructed and found to share input from seven midget bipolar cells. The OFF center ganglion cells were in a one to one relationship with their midget(More)
Until recently, peptides were thought to act as neuromodulators in the retina, and the localizations of peptides in wide field amacrine cells, associational cells and interplexiform cells seemed to support this hypothesis. Anatomical studies in the macaque monkey retina, however, found that some types of peptidergic amacrine cells made extensive contacts(More)
To describe the wide-field ganglion cells, they were injected intracellularly with Neurobiotin using an in vitro preparation of macaque retina and labeled with streptavidin-Cy3. The retinas were then labeled with antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and other markers to indicate the depth of the dendrites within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and(More)
Many retinal ganglion cells are coupled via gap junctions with neighboring amacrine cells and ganglion cells. We investigated the extent and dynamics of coupling in one such network, the OFF alpha ganglion cell of rabbit retina and its associated amacrine cells. We also observed the relative spread of Neurobiotin injected into a ganglion cell in the(More)