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X-ray diffraction shows that the collagen fibrils of dog, pig and human meniscus tend to be oriented circumferentially in the bulk tissue and radially in the surface region. Individual fibrils are not all oriented in these directions but are distributed about the preferred orientations with a standard deviation of around 15 degrees in the bulk tissue.(More)
The viscoelastic properties of the nucleus pulposus were measured in compression for 35 specimens dissected from 9 sheep. Measurements on 19 specimens were made on the day of slaughter; the remaining 16 specimens were stored frozen and thawed before testing. A preload of 0.2 N was applied to each specimen and a cyclic compression of 10 microm applied at(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the water content, collagen content and collagen orientation angle in different regions of sheep lumbar discs. DESIGN A laboratory study of sheep discs obtained from an abattoir. METHODS A total of 21 sheep lumbar discs were obtained from three lumbar spines. Water content was determined by oven drying (60 degrees C) to constant(More)
STUDY DESIGN Magnetic resonance images were obtained of the lumbar spines of three volunteers in neutral, flexed, and extended postures. OBJECTIVES To measure migration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc during flexion and extension of the spine in living people. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Results of experiments on bisected cadaveric(More)
Elevated temperature is frequently used to accelerate the aging process in polymers that are associated with medical devices and other applications. A common approach is to assume that the rate of aging is increased by a factor of 2(DeltaT/10), where DeltaT is the temperature increase. This result is a mathematical expression of the empirical observation(More)
Struvite and hydroxyapatite were precipitated from artificial urine onto the surfaces of catheter materials by the controlled addition of urease. They were precipitated both together and separately (by omitting components of the artificial urine), and with and without the inclusion of albumin (which was intended to mimic the proteinaceous debris found in(More)
This study demonstrates that the clamped-wire system used to suspend bones within an Ilizarov external fixator yields when the perpendicular load exceeds 50 N per wire. Cyclic loading was applied to tensioned wires clamped within an Ilizarov ring component, with steadily increasing load amplitude. Wires were tested at four initial tension settings. The(More)
The surfaces of 32 encrusted urinary catheters were examined by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the association of bacteria with the encrusting deposits. Deposits consisted of struvite crystals surrounded by aggregates of very small crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Underneath these minerals there was a layer of closely packed bacteria.(More)
Eighteen frozen ovine discs were bisected, in the mid-sagittal plane, to produce 36 specimens. The cut surfaces were marked at the inner and outer annulus boundaries of the annulus fibrosus, both anteriorly and posteriorly, with Alcian blue stain. The sections were sealed by a transparent plate, and thawed. A compression of 1mm at a rate of 0.2mms(-1) was(More)
Flexion-extension of the spine is defined in the sagittal plane, which divides the body into right and left halves, and can be measured from lateral radiographs, including those obtained by videofluoroscopy. The effects of axial rotation and lateral bending, which lead to movement out of the sagittal plane, were investigated by generating a(More)