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X-ray diffraction shows that the collagen fibrils of dog, pig and human meniscus tend to be oriented circumferentially in the bulk tissue and radially in the surface region. Individual fibrils are not all oriented in these directions but are distributed about the preferred orientations with a standard deviation of around 15 degrees in the bulk tissue.(More)
The viscoelastic properties of the nucleus pulposus were measured in compression for 35 specimens dissected from 9 sheep. Measurements on 19 specimens were made on the day of slaughter; the remaining 16 specimens were stored frozen and thawed before testing. A preload of 0.2 N was applied to each specimen and a cyclic compression of 10 microm applied at(More)
Comparative precision tests of the vertebral height measurement function of the Aberdeen Vertebral Morphometry System (AVMS) software and Lunar EXPERT-XL software were undertaken using four vertebrae from the same lateral spine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) image of the same subject (male, 67 years). Two of the vertebrae were abnormal and two were(More)
Struvite and hydroxyapatite were precipitated from artificial urine onto the surfaces of catheter materials by the controlled addition of urease. They were precipitated both together and separately (by omitting components of the artificial urine), and with and without the inclusion of albumin (which was intended to mimic the proteinaceous debris found in(More)
The surfaces of 32 encrusted urinary catheters were examined by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the association of bacteria with the encrusting deposits. Deposits consisted of struvite crystals surrounded by aggregates of very small crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Underneath these minerals there was a layer of closely packed bacteria.(More)
Seventeen specimens of lumbar discs, attached to the caudal and cranial halves of the adjacent vertebral bodies, were subjected to a maximum compressive load of 5.5 kN in six stages. The time between each stage was about 15 seconds. At each stage of compression, a radiograph of the specimen was recorded, and the bulging of the end-plate into the caudal(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the water content, collagen content and collagen orientation angle in different regions of sheep lumbar discs. DESIGN A laboratory study of sheep discs obtained from an abattoir. METHODS A total of 21 sheep lumbar discs were obtained from three lumbar spines. Water content was determined by oven drying (60 degrees C) to constant(More)
STUDY DESIGN Magnetic resonance images were obtained of the lumbar spines of three volunteers in neutral, flexed, and extended postures. OBJECTIVES To measure migration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc during flexion and extension of the spine in living people. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Results of experiments on bisected cadaveric(More)
BACKGROUND Polyurethane (PU) foam is widely used as a model for cancellous bone. The higher density foams are used as standard biomechanical test materials, but none of the low density PU foams are universally accepted as models for osteoporotic (OP) bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether low density PU foam might be suitable for mimicking(More)