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Nitrogen is a key regulator of primary productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. Historically, only inorganic N (NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-)) and L-amino acids have been considered to be important to the N nutrition of terrestrial plants. However, amino acids are also present in soil as small peptides and in D-enantiomeric form. We compared the uptake and(More)
Running header Change-induced feedbacks in the Arctic-alpine Word count 8158 words within the continuous narrative 4 Abstract Global environmental change, related to climate change and the deposition of airborne N-containing contaminants, has already resulted in shifts in plant community composition among plant functional types in arctic and temperate(More)
Warming-induced release of CO2 from the large carbon (C) stores in arctic soils could accelerate climate change. However, declines in the response of soil respiration to warming in long-term experiments suggest that microbial activity acclimates to temperature, greatly reducing the potential for enhanced C losses. As reduced respiration rates with time(More)
Biological processes in soils are regulated in part by soil temperature, and there is currently considerable interest in obtaining robust information on the temperature sensitivity of carbon cycling process. However, very little comparable information exists on the temperature regulation of specific nitrogen cycling processes. This paper addresses this(More)
Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system(More)
A novel bacteriophage infecting Staphylococus pasteuri was isolated during a screen for phages in Antarctic soils. The phage named SpaA1 is morphologically similar to phages of the family Siphoviridae. The 42,784 bp genome of SpaA1 is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with 3' protruding cohesive ends. The SpaA1 genome encompasses 63 predicted(More)
The Antarctica Dry Valleys are regarded as the coldest hyperarid desert system on Earth. While a wide variety of environmental stressors including very low minimum temperatures, frequent freeze-thaw cycles and low water availability impose severe limitations to life, suitable niches for abundant microbial colonization exist. Antarctic desert soils contain(More)
The decomposition of tobacco roots with genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, by the cellulolytic fungus Chaetomium globosum, and by microbial communities in soil were examined to determine whether the rates of decomposition of the modified and unmodified roots decomposed at different rates,(More)
Bradford et al. (2008) conclude that thermal adaptation will reduce the response of soil microbial respiration to rising global temperatures. However, we question both the methods used to calculate mass-specific respiration rates and the interpretation of the results. No clear evidence of thermal adaptation reducing soil microbial activity was produced.
We investigated the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) diversity and enzyme activities in soils from the volcano, Mt. Etna (Sicily). The soils were at sites which have been developing for different periods of time and have formed in volcanic lava of differing ages that have been supplemented with volcanic ejecta from subsequent eruptions. However, the plant(More)