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Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs.(More)
BACKGROUND Patients who have a first episode of venous thromboembolism in the absence of known risk factors for thrombosis (idiopathic thrombosis) are often treated with anticoagulant therapy for three months. Such patients may benefit from longer treatment, however, because they appear to have an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulant therapy is(More)
Despite an impressive psycholinguistic effort to explore the way in which two or more languages are represented and controlled, controversy surrounds both issues. We argue that problems of representation and control are intimately connected and we propose that data from functional neuroimaging may advance a resolution. Neuroimaging data, we argue, support(More)
The neural systems underlying translation and language switching were investigated using PET. Proficient German-English adult bilinguals were scanned whilst either translating or reading visually presented words in German (L1), English (L2) or alternating L1/L2. We refer to alternating L1/L2 as 'switching'. The results revealed contrasting patterns of(More)
A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural(More)
Information was obtained by questionnaire about 215 non-hemophilic patients who developed inhibitors against factor VIII (antihemophilic factor). The majority of the patients were over 50 years of age, and approximately equal numbers of males and females were reported. Rheumatoid arthritis was present in 8% of the cases, 7% occurred during pregnancy or the(More)
How does the bilingual brain distinguish and control which language is in use? Previous functional imaging experiments have not been able to answer this question because proficient bilinguals activate the same brain regions irrespective of the language being tested. Here, we reveal that neuronal responses within the left caudate are sensitive to changes in(More)
Monitoring and controlling 2 language systems is fundamental to language use in bilinguals. Here, we reveal in a combined functional (event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging) and structural neuroimaging (voxel-based morphometry) study that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a structure tightly bound to domain-general executive control(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and recurrent thrombosis receive doses of warfarin adjusted to achieve an international normalized ratio (INR) of more than 3.0. However, there are no prospective data to support this approach to thromboprophylaxis. METHODS We performed a randomized, double-blind trial in which patients(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum temporale. We further demonstrate(More)