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To assess the importance of B cell control of T cell differentiation, we analyzed the course of the T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-driven disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with an altered B cell compartment. We found that recovery was dependent on the presence of autoantigen-reactive B cells. B cells from recovered mice produced interleukin(More)
In this study we have shown that activation of arthritogenic splenocytes with antigen and agonistic anti-CD40 gives raise to a B cell population that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma. Transfer of these B cells into DBA/1-TcR-beta-Tg mice, immunized with bovine collagen (CII) emulsified in complete Freund's(More)
1. Isoprenaline (3 x 10(-8)-10(-5) M), salbutamol (3 x 10(-7)-10(-4) M) and forskolin (3 x 10(-9)-3 x 10(-7) M) relaxed rat isolated thoracic aortic rings contracted with noradrenaline (10(-7) M). Removal of the endothelium from the aortic rings abolished the effect of acetylcholine (10(-6) M) and completely prevented the vascular relaxation induced by(More)
The immune system can remember, sometimes for a lifetime, the identity of a pathogen. Understanding how this is accomplished has fascinated immunologists and microbiologists for many years, but there is still considerable debate regarding the mechanisms by which long-term immunity is maintained. Some of the controversy stems from a failure to distinguish(More)
Defects in pancreatic beta cell turnover are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes by genetic markers for diabetes. Decreased beta cell neogenesis could contribute to diabetes. The longevity and turnover of human beta cells is unknown; in rodents <1 year old, a half-life of 30 days is estimated. Intracellular lipofuscin body (LB) accumulation is(More)
We have developed fluo-4, a new fluorescent dye for quantifying cellular Ca2+ concentrations in the 100 nM to 1 microM range. Fluo-4 is similar in structure and spectral properties to the widely used fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye, fluo-3, but it has certain advantages over fluo-3. Due to its greater absorption near 488 nm, fluo-4 offers substantially(More)
In addition to their role in humoral immunity, B lymphocytes are important antigen-presenting cells (APC). In the same way as other APC, B cells make cytokines upon activation and have the potential to modulate T cell responses. In this study, we investigated which mouse B cell subsets are the most potent cytokine producers, and examined the role of(More)
B cells are well documented as APC; however, their role in supporting and programming the T cell response in vivo is still unclear. Studies using B cell-deficient mice have given rise to contradictory results. We have used mixed BM chimeric mice to define the contribution that B cells make as APC. When the B cell compartment is deficient in MHC class II,(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are key immune regulators during helminth infections, and identifying the mechanisms governing their induction is of principal importance for the design of treatments for helminth infections, allergies and autoimmunity. Little is yet known regarding the co-stimulatory environment that favours the development of Foxp3(+)(More)
The normal intestinal epithelium provides a barrier relatively impermeable to luminal constituents. However, patients with inflammatory bowel disease experience enhanced intestinal permeability that correlates with the degree of injury. IL-10 gene-deficient mice were studied to determine whether increased intestinal permeability occurs as a primary defect(More)