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Group A streptococci, a common human pathogen, secrete streptokinase, which activates the host's blood clot-dissolving protein, plasminogen. Streptokinase is highly specific for human plasminogen, exhibiting little or no activity against other mammalian species, including mouse. Here, a transgene expressing human plasminogen markedly increased mortality in(More)
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening systemic illness of abrupt onset and unknown cause. Proteolysis of the blood-clotting protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) observed in normal plasma is decreased in TTP patients. However, the identity of the responsible protease and its role in the pathophysiology of TTP remain unknown. We(More)
We detected clonal mosaicism for large chromosomal anomalies (duplications, deletions and uniparental disomy) using SNP microarray data from over 50,000 subjects recruited for genome-wide association studies. This detection method requires a relatively high frequency of cells with the same abnormal karyotype (>5-10%; presumably of clonal origin) in the(More)
The exocyst complex tethers vesicles at sites of fusion through interactions with small GTPases. The G protein RalA resides on Glut4 vesicles, and binds to the exocyst after activation by insulin, but must then disengage to ensure continuous exocytosis. Here we report that, after recognition of the exocyst by activated RalA, disengagement occurs through(More)
Combined deficiency of factors V and VIII is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder resulting from alterations in an unknown gene on chromosome 18q, distinct from the factor V and factor VIII genes. ERGIC-53, a component of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, was mapped to a YAC and BAC contig containing the critical region for the combined factors V(More)
The globally disseminated Streptococcus pyogenes M1T1 clone causes a number of highly invasive human diseases. The transition from local to systemic infection occurs by an unknown mechanism; however invasive M1T1 clinical isolates are known to express significantly less cysteine protease SpeB than M1T1 isolates from local infections. Here, we show that in(More)
We have identified altered lineage-specific expression of an N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase gene, Galgt2, as the gain-of-function mechanism responsible for the action of the Mvwf locus, a major modifier of plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) level in RIIIS/J mice. A switch of Galgt2 gene expression from intestinal epithelial cell-specific to a pattern(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes rare but life-threatening syndromes of necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome in humans. The GAS serotype M1T1 clone has globally disseminated, and mutations in the control of virulence regulatory sensor kinase (covRS) operon correlate with severe invasive disease. Here, a cohort of non-M1 GAS was screened to(More)
The transcriptional regulation of genes is a complex process, particularly for genes exhibiting a tissue-specific pattern of expression. We studied 28 genes that are expressed primarily in endothelial cells, another 28 genes that are expressed highly, but not exclusively, in cultured endothelial cells, and three control sets, consisting of genes not(More)