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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory RNAs found in multicellular eukaryotes, including humans, where they are implicated in cancer. The let-7 miRNA times seam cell terminal differentiation in C. elegans. Here we show that the let-7 family negatively regulates let-60/RAS. Loss of let-60/RAS suppresses let-7, and the let-60/RAS 3'UTR contains multiple let-7(More)
Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality world-wide and the majority of cases are diagnosed at late stages of disease. There is currently no cost-effective screening test for NSCLC, and the development of such a test is a public health imperative. Recent studies have suggested that chest computed tomography(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as an important new class of cellular regulators that control various cellular processes and are implicated in human diseases, including cancer. Here, we show that loss of let-7 function enhances lung tumor formation in vivo, strongly supporting the hypothesis that let-7 is a tumor suppressor. Moreover, we report(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in both plants and animals. miRNA genes have been implicated in a variety of important biological processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis, fat metabolism, viral infection, and cancer. Similar to protein-coding messenger RNAs, miRNA expression varies between(More)
To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N =3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000.(More)
In the period 1992-2000, the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre collected standardized epidemiologic data on 1,877 general outbreaks of Norovirus (formerly "Norwalk-like virus") infection in England and Wales. Seventy-nine percent of general outbreaks occurred in health-care institutions, i.e., hospitals (40%) and(More)
Healthcare-associated outbreaks of gastroenteritis are an increasingly recognized problem, but detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of these events is lacking. We actively monitored three hospital systems in England for outbreaks of gastroenteritis in 2002 to 2003. A total of 2,154 patients (2.21 cases/1,000-hospital-days) and 1,360 healthcare staff (0.47(More)
The importance of foodborne viral infections is increasingly recognized. Food handlers can transmit infection during preparation or serving; fruit and vegetables may be contaminated by fecally contaminated water used for growing or washing. And the globalization of the food industry mean that a contaminated food item may not be limited to national(More)
The number of deaths in England and Wales associated with gastrointestinal pathogens, norovirus in particular, in persons >or=65 years was estimated for 2001-2006. Regression analysis was used to model monthly counts of gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from infected patients against monthly counts of deaths from infectious and noninfectious(More)
BACKGROUND Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in(More)