David W. G. Brown

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Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats(More)
New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure(More)
Recent data suggest that estrogens play a role in regulating fluid resorption from the efferent ducts, though the biochemical mechanisms involved are unknown. The present study has used immunocytochemistry to localize a water channel protein, Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), to the efferent ducts of male rats and marmoset monkeys from perinatal life through to(More)
BACKGROUND Controlled trials have found therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusion therapy to be equally efficacious in treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Due to increases in the price of IVIg compared to human serum albumin (HSA), used as a replacement fluid in TPE, we examined direct hospital-level expenditures(More)
BACKGROUND Highly publicised outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis in hospitals in the UK and Ireland and cruise ships in the USA sparked speculation about whether this reported activity was unusual. METHODS We analysed data collected through a collaborative research and surveillance network of viral gastroenteritis in ten European countries (England and(More)
To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N =3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000.(More)
To allow more rapid and internationally standardized assessment of the spread of noroviruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses [NLVs]) as important food-borne pathogens, harmonization of methods for their detection is needed. Diagnosis of NLVs in clinical diagnostic laboratories is usually performed by reverse transciptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In the(More)
Healthcare-associated outbreaks of gastroenteritis are an increasingly recognized problem, but detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of these events is lacking. We actively monitored three hospital systems in England for outbreaks of gastroenteritis in 2002 to 2003. A total of 2,154 patients (2.21 cases/1,000-hospital-days) and 1,360 healthcare staff (0.47(More)
BACKGROUND Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in(More)
The number of deaths in England and Wales associated with gastrointestinal pathogens, norovirus in particular, in persons >or=65 years was estimated for 2001-2006. Regression analysis was used to model monthly counts of gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from infected patients against monthly counts of deaths from infectious and noninfectious(More)