David W. G. Brown

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BACKGROUND Highly publicised outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis in hospitals in the UK and Ireland and cruise ships in the USA sparked speculation about whether this reported activity was unusual. METHODS We analysed data collected through a collaborative research and surveillance network of viral gastroenteritis in ten European countries (England and(More)
To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N =3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000.(More)
Healthcare-associated outbreaks of gastroenteritis are an increasingly recognized problem, but detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of these events is lacking. We actively monitored three hospital systems in England for outbreaks of gastroenteritis in 2002 to 2003. A total of 2,154 patients (2.21 cases/1,000-hospital-days) and 1,360 healthcare staff (0.47(More)
BACKGROUND Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in(More)
The importance of foodborne viral infections is increasingly recognized. Food handlers can transmit infection during preparation or serving; fruit and vegetables may be contaminated by fecally contaminated water used for growing or washing. And the globalization of the food industry mean that a contaminated food item may not be limited to national(More)
The number of deaths in England and Wales associated with gastrointestinal pathogens, norovirus in particular, in persons >or=65 years was estimated for 2001-2006. Regression analysis was used to model monthly counts of gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from infected patients against monthly counts of deaths from infectious and noninfectious(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in industrialised countries. Gastroenteritis caused by Norovirus infection has been described as a highly seasonal syndrome, often referred to as "winter vomiting disease". METHODS The Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre has systematically(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate ascertainment of the onset of community transmission of influenza A/H1N1 2009 (swine flu) in England during the earliest phase of the epidemic through comparing data from two surveillance systems. DESIGN Cross sectional opportunistic survey. STUDY SAMPLES Results from self samples by consenting patients who had called the NHS(More)
BACKGROUND Human Noroviruses (NoV) are the major cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis and the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Genotype II-4 (GII-4) NoV has been shown to spread rapidly and is the most commonly detected strain worldwide, particularly in association with outbreaks. Previously, we have shown that circulating(More)
Perspectives L inguistically speaking, the predominant viral cause of gastroenteritis has been evolving. Once evocatively called winter vomiting disease, the pathogen's name has changed alongside improved scientific understanding. First called Norwalk virus (or Norwalk-like virus) in reference to the Ohio town where specimens from a school outbreak enabled(More)