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A goal of phylogeography is to relate patterns of genetic differentiation to potential historical geographic isolating events. Quaternary glaciations, particularly the one culminating in the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 21 ka (thousands of years ago), greatly affected the distributions and population sizes of temperate marine species as their ranges(More)
We have investigated the distribution of several recently inserted Alu family members within representatives of diverse human groups. Human population studies using 65 unrelated human DNA samples, as well as a familial study to test inheritance, showed that individual Alu family members could be divided into three groups. The first group consisted of(More)
Molecular and biochemical genetic analyses have revealed that many marine invertebrate taxa, including some well-studied and presumably cosmopolitan species, are actually complexes of sibling species. When morphological differences are slight and estimated divergence times are old, data suggest either unusually high rates of sequence evolution or long-term(More)
The genetic control of 11 electrophoretically detected allozyme polymorphisms in the oysterCrassostrea virginica was investigated in 10 pair crosses. For nine allozyme loci, each offspring shared at least one band (electromorph) with each parent. For the remaining two loci (mannosephosphate isomerase and leucine aminopeptidase-2), some offspring failed to(More)
Considerable controversy surrounds the importance of inbreeding in natural populations. The rate of natural inbreeding and the influences of behavioral mechanisms that serve to promote or minimize inbreeding (e.g., philopatry vs. dispersal) are poorly understood. We studied inbreeding and social structuring of a population of black-tailed prairie dogs(More)
Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of forcipulatacean sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) have reconstructed a non-monophyletic order Forcipulatida, provided that two or more forcipulate families are included. This result could mean that one or more assumptions of the reconstruction method was violated, or else the traditional classification could(More)
A threatened but under-studied component offreshwater biodiversity in North America is thenative freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionoidea: Margaritiferidae and Unionidae). Genetic data suggest that these mussel speciesgenerally exhibit levels of variability similarto other invertebrates. We surveyed allozymevariation in the Louisiana Pearlshell,(More)
When most amino acid substitutions in protein-coding genes are slightly deleterious rather than selectively neutral, life history differences can potentially modify the effective population size or the selective regime, resulting in altered ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions among taxa. We studied substitution patterns for the(More)