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Magnetic resonance imaging enables the noninvasive mapping of both anatomical white matter connectivity and dynamic patterns of neural activity in the human brain. We examine the relationship between the structural properties of white matter streamlines (structural connectivity) and the functional properties of correlations in neural activity (functional(More)
Short Abstract Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. In our Glutamate Amplifies Noradrenergic Effects (GANE) model, glutamate at active synapses interacts with norepinephrine released by the locus coeruleus to create local 'hot spots' of activity that enable the selective effects of arousal. This hot spot mechanism allows(More)
An ability to flexibly shift a decision criterion can be advantageous. For example, a known change in the base rate of targets and distractors on a recognition memory test will lead optimal decision makers to shift their criterion accordingly. In the present study, 95 individuals participated in two recognition memory tests that included periodic changes in(More)
OBJECTIVE A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative(More)
Emotional arousal enhances perception and memory of high-priority information but impairs processing of other information. Here, we propose that, under arousal, local glutamate levels signal the current strength of a representation and interact with norepinephrine (NE) to enhance high priority representations and out-compete or suppress lower priority(More)
In previous work, smokers showed steeper devaluation of delayed rewards than non-smokers. While the neural correlates of this link between nicotine dependence and delay of discounting are not established, altered activity in executive networks may relate to impaired delayed gratification. The goal of this study was to examine neural correlates of(More)
The amygdala forms a crucial link between central pain and stress systems. Previous research indicates that psychological stress affects amygdala activity, but it is less clear how painful stressors influence subsequent amygdala functional connectivity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to investigate differences in healthy(More)
Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and(More)
When people experience surprising or sub-optimal performance outcomes, an increase in autonomic arousal helps allocate cognitive resources to adjust behavior accordingly. The locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system regulates a central orienting response to behaviorally relevant events, and might therefore signal the need to attend to and learn from(More)
Decision criterion is an important factor in recognition memory, determining the amount of evidence required to judge an item as previously encountered. For a typical recognition memory test involving the prior study of a set of items, a conservative criterion establishes a higher standard of evidence for recognition and designates fewer items as previously(More)