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The identification of signals that regulate pluripotentiality and self-renewal is fundamental to the understanding of stem cell biology. To quantify the functionally active genome of pluripotent R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells, we used the method of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to sequence a total of 140,313 SAGE tags. Of 44,569 unique(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been established as permanent lines of undifferentiated pluripotent cells from early mouse embryos. ES cells provide a unique system for the genetic manipulation and the creation of knockout strains of mice through gene targeting. By cultivation in vitro as 3D aggregates called embryoid bodies, ES cells can differentiate into(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous insulinotropic peptide secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake. It enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell proliferation and glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and lowers blood glucose and food intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A long-acting GLP-1 receptor(More)
Chronic neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurological disorders associated with cognitive loss. Activated microglia and secreted factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are key mediators of neuroinflammation and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide,(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a not uncommon event in adolescents and young adults. Although it does not result in clear morphological brain defects, it is associated with long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Herein, we characterized the biochemical and behavioral changes associated with experimental mTBI in mice that may act as(More)
AIMS To identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform(s) responsible for the formation of the primary metabolite of ziprasidone (ziprasidone sulphoxide), to determine the kinetics of its formation and to predict possible drug interactions by investigating CYP isoform inhibition in an in vitro study. METHODS In vitro metabolism of [14C]-ziprasidone was(More)
Evidence indicates altered neurogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammation, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and its propagation have a critical role in the degeneration of hippocampal neurons, cognitive impairment, and altered neurogenesis. Particularly, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a central role in(More)
Type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with an increased incidence of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several pathological features are shared between diabetes and AD, including dysfunctional insulin signaling and a dysregulation of glucose metabolism. It has therefore been suggested that not only may the two(More)
Inflammatory signals generated within the brain and peripheral nervous system direct diverse biological processes. Key amongst the inflammatory molecules is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that, via binding to its associated receptors, is considered to be a master regulator of cellular cascades that control a number of(More)
As the average ages of North Americans and Europeans continue to rise; similarly the incidence of "old age" associated illnesses likewise increases. Most notably among these ailments are conditions linked to dementia-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke. While in the early stages, these(More)