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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous insulinotropic peptide secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake. It enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell proliferation and glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and lowers blood glucose and food intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A long-acting GLP-1 receptor(More)
Chronic neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurological disorders associated with cognitive loss. Activated microglia and secreted factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are key mediators of neuroinflammation and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide,(More)
Evidence indicates altered neurogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammation, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and its propagation have a critical role in the degeneration of hippocampal neurons, cognitive impairment, and altered neurogenesis. Particularly, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a central role in(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone of current interest in type 2 diabetes, is neuroprotective in both cell culture and animal models. To characterize the neuroprotective properties of GLP-1 and associated underlying mechanisms, we over-expressed the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y(More)
Inflammatory signals generated within the brain and peripheral nervous system direct diverse biological processes. Key amongst the inflammatory molecules is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that, via binding to its associated receptors, is considered to be a master regulator of cellular cascades that control a number of(More)
Neuroinflammation is associated with virtually all major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although it remains unclear whether neuroinflammation is the driving force behind these disorders, compelling evidence implicates its role in exacerbating disease progression, with a key player being the potent proinflammatory cytokine(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a not uncommon event in adolescents and young adults. Although it does not result in clear morphological brain defects, it is associated with long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Herein, we characterized the biochemical and behavioral changes associated with experimental mTBI in mice that may act as(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients do not show clear structural brain defects and, in general, do not require hospitalization, but frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties. Although there is no current effective treatment or cure for mTBI, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine fundamental in the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), facilitates insulin signaling, and the long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) is currently used as an anti-diabetic drug. GLP-1(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a major and increasing public health concern and is both the most frequent cause of mortality and disability in young adults and a chief cause of morbidity in the elderly. Albeit mTBI patients do not show clear structural brain defects and, generally, do not require hospitalization, they frequently suffer from(More)