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Surface roughness is a crucial input for radar backscatter models. Roughness measurements of root meansquared height (hrms) of the same surface can vary depending on the measuring instrument and how the data are processed. This letter addresses the error in hrms associated with instrument bias and instrument deployment issues such as number and length of(More)
[1] Four approaches for deriving estimates of near-surface soil moisture from radar imagery in a semiarid, sparsely vegetated rangeland were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture. The approaches were based on empirical, physical, semiempirical, and image difference techniques. The empirical approach involved simple linear regression of(More)
The Integral Equation Method (IEM) model and a newly defined delta index were used to estimate near surface soil moisture from C-band radar satellite imagery in a semi-arid rangeland in southern Arizona, USA. Model results were validated against soil moisture measurements made in the field at the time of satellite overpass. The IEM model performed poorly in(More)
Beneficial effects of leaving residue at the soil surface are well documented for steep lands, but not for flat lands that are drained with surface inlets and tile lines. This study quantified the effects of tillage and nutrient source on tile line and surface inlet water quality under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) from relatively flat lands (<3%). Tillage(More)
Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior(More)
Detailed topographic data collected with an airborne laser scanner can help determine the extent of bank erosion and identify banks that are more vulnerable to bank collapse and thus require stabilization efforts. The Minnesota River which flows through a 95% agricultural watershed has been ranked among the top 20 most polluted rivers in the U.S. Greater(More)
Sediment and phosphorus (P) transport from the Minnesota River Basin to Lake Pepin on the upper Mississippi River has garnered much attention in recent years. However, there is lack of data on the extent of sediment and P contributions from riverbanks vis-à-vis uplands and ravines. Using two light detection and ranging (lidar) data sets taken in 2005 and(More)
Measurement sensitivity and bias quality control metrics are commonly reported for water-quality parameters measured in the laboratory. Less commonly recognized is that they should also be reported for field-measured parameters. Periodic evaluation helps document data quality and can help serve as early warning if there are problems with methods or(More)
Despite the importance of hydrologic regimes to the phenology, demography, and abundance of fishes such as salmonids, there have been surprisingly few syntheses that holistically assess regional, species-specific trends in hydrologic regimes within a framework of climate change. Here, we consider hydrologic regimes within the Greater Yellowstone Area in the(More)
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