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Membrane proteins, encoded by ~20% of genes in almost all organisms, including humans, are critical for cellular communication, electrical and ion balances, structural integrity of the cells and their adhesions, and other functions. Atomic-resolution structures of these proteins furnish important information for understanding their molecular organization(More)
Deactivation of light-activated rhodopsin (metarhodopsin II) involves, after rhodopsin kinase and arrestin interactions, the hydrolysis of the covalent bond of all-trans-retinal to the apoprotein. Although the long-lived storage form metarhodopsin III is transiently formed, all-trans-retinal is eventually released from the active site. Here we address the(More)
Current software and hardware systems, being parallel and reconfig-urable, raise new safety and reliability problems, and the resolution of these problems requires new methods. Numerous proposals attempt at reducing the threat of bugs and preventing several kinds of attacks. In this paper, we develop an extension of the calculus of Mobile Ambients, named(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that respond to environmental signals and initiate signal transduction pathways activating cellular processes. Rhodopsin is a GPCR found in rod cells in retina where it functions as a photopigment. Its molecular structure is known from cryo-electron microscopic and X-ray crystallographic(More)
Rhodopsin is a retinal photoreceptor protein of bipartite structure consisting of the transmembrane protein opsin and a light-sensitive chromophore 11-cis-retinal, linked to opsin via a protonated Schiff base. Studies on rhodopsin have unveiled many structural and functional features that are common to a large and pharmacologically important group of(More)
The crystal structure of rhodopsin has provided the first three-dimensional molecular model for a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Alignment of the molecular model from the crystallographic structure with the helical axes seen in cryo-electron microscopic (cryo-EM) studies provides an opportunity to investigate the properties of the molecule as a function(More)
The three-dimensional crystal structure of the copper-containing nitrite reductase (NIR) from Achromobacter cycloclastes has been determined to 2.3 angstrom (A) resolution by isomorphous replacement. The monomer has two Greek key beta-barrel domains similar to that of plastocyanin and contains two copper sites. The enzyme is a trimer both in the crystal and(More)
The nose is an organ that serves many functions. These functions are intimately involved in an organ that occupies a very aesthetically prominent position on the face. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy is of the utmost importance for surgeons attempting to preserve or improve the functional capability and the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Nasal(More)