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BRCA1 immunostaining reveals discrete, nuclear foci during S phase of the cell cycle. Human Rad51, a homolog of bacterial RecA, behaves similarly. The two proteins were found to colocalize in vivo and to coimmunoprecipitate. BRCA1 residues 758-1064 alone formed Rad51-containing complexes in vitro. Rad51 is also specifically associated with developing(More)
How DNA damage is converted into intracellular signals that can control cell behaviour is unknown. The c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase is activated by ionizing radiation and certain other DNA-damaging agents, whereas the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), consisting of a serine/threonine kinase and Ku DNA-binding subunits, requires DNA double-strand(More)
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells is dependent on the Ku DNA binding protein complex. However, the mechanism of Ku-mediated repair is not understood. We discovered a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (KU80) that is structurally similar to the 80-kDa mammalian Ku subunit. Ku8O associates with the product of the HDF1 gene, forming the major(More)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare human disease displaying chromosome instability, radiosensitivity, cancer predisposition, immunodeficiency, and other defects [1, 2]. NBS is complexed with MRE11 and RAD50 in a DNA repair complex [3-5] and is localized to telomere ends in association with TRF proteins [6, 7]. We show that blood cells from NBS(More)
PURPOSE Tumor-specific biomarkers that predict resistance to DNA damaging agents may improve therapeutic outcomes by guiding the selection of effective therapies and limiting morbidity related to ineffective approaches. XPF (ERCC4) is an essential component of several DNA repair pathways and XPF-deficient cells are exquisitely sensitive to DNA damaging(More)
Single-agent immunotherapy has achieved limited clinical benefit to date in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This may be a result of the presence of a uniquely immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Critical obstacles to immunotherapy in PDAC tumors include a high number of tumor-associated immunosuppressive cells and a(More)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by extreme radiation sensitivity, chromosomal instability and cancer. The phenotypes are similar to those of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) disease, where there is a deficiency in a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage, indicating that the Nbs and Atm proteins may participate in common(More)
Etoposides block cell division by interfering with the action of topoisomerase II, leaving enzyme-DNA double-strand breaks. We found that certain components of the trimeric DNA-dependent protein kinase influence cell survival following etoposide damage. Interestingly, either Ku70- or Ku80-deficient cell lines, but not mutant cell lines of the DNA-PK(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been implicated in disease recurrence, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance, but effective targeting strategies for these cells are still wanting. VS-5584 is a potent and selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1/2 and class I PI 3-kinases. Here, we report that VS-5584 is up to 30-fold more potent in inhibiting the proliferation and(More)