David T. Hughes

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Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism in which bacteria respond to hormone-like molecules called autoinducers (AIs). The AI-3 quorum-sensing system is also involved in interkingdom signaling with the eukaryotic hormones epinephrine/norepinephrine. This signaling activates transcription of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli(More)
Facilitating access is concerned with helping people to command appropriate health care resources in order to preserve or improve their health. Access is a complex concept and at least four aspects require evaluation. If services are available and there is an adequate supply of services, then the opportunity to obtain health care exists, and a population(More)
Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine compovnents, and we functionally(More)
The ability to respond to stress is at the core of an organism's survival. The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine play a central role in stress responses in mammals, which require the synchronized interaction of the whole neuroendocrine system. Mammalian adrenergic receptors are G-coupled protein receptors (GPCRs); bacteria, however, sense these(More)
Many bacterial pathogens rely on a conserved membrane histidine sensor kinase, QseC, to respond to host adrenergic signaling molecules and bacterial signals in order to promote the expression of virulence factors. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified a small molecule, LED209, that inhibits the binding of signals to QseC, preventing its(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylactic central lymph node dissection with total thyroidectomy (TT) for the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial because of the possibility of increased morbidity with uncertain benefit. The purpose of this study is to determine whether prophylactic central neck dissection provides any advantages over TT alone. (More)
Rituximab is routinely used for the treatment of neoplasia, although the mechanism of action remains uncertain. In the current study, CD20-induced apoptosis was investigated with a panel of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in a wide range of cell lines. A hierarchy of mAb activity was apparent, with the B1 mAb generally the most potent. Apoptosis(More)
Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a candidate modulator of gene expression during status epilepticus in the rodent. In such models, full-length REST and the truncated REST4 variant are induced and can potentially direct differential gene expression patterns. We have addressed the regulation of these REST variants in rodent(More)
The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a complex consortium of bacterial species. Bacteria engage in chemical signaling to coordinate population-wide behavior. However, it is unclear if chemical sensing plays a role in establishing mammalian host-bacterial commensal relationships. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a deadly(More)