David T. Dunn

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OBJECTIVE To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Six large European cities. PARTICIPANTS Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM(More)
BACKGROUND Randomised placebo-controlled trials have shown that daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, this benefit could be counteracted by risk compensation in users of PrEP. We did the PROUD study to assess this effect. METHODS PROUD is an open-label randomised trial done at(More)
BACKGROUND Women who acquire toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy (in most cases detected through serological screening) require counselling about the risk of congenital infection and its clinical sequelae. Reliable estimates of risk are not currently available. We undertook an analysis of data from women referred to the toxoplasmosis reference(More)
Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk by culture and polymerase chain reaction does not necessarily mean that breastfeeding is a route of transmission, although evidence from several case-reports points in that direction. We undertook a systematic review of published studies meeting criteria that allowed determination of(More)
BACKGROUND Little information is available about the timing of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and no interventions to decrease transmission rates have been identified. We examined the effect of risk factors, including mode of delivery, on the vertical transmission rate. METHODS Data from HCV-infected women and their infants from(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrocephalus, intracranial calcification and retinochoroiditis are the most common manifestations of tissue damage due to congenital toxoplasmosis, but the effect of prenatal treatment on these outcomes is unclear. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal treatment for toxoplasmosis on the risk of intracranial and ocular lesions in(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of prenatal serological screening for toxoplasmosis is to identify and treat maternal infection as soon as possible in order to prevent transmission of the parasite to the fetus. However, despite widespread provision of prenatal toxoplasma screening across Europe, the effectiveness of prenatal treatment is uncertain. The study aimed to(More)
We compared the relative risks of mother-to-child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and clinical manifestations due to congenital toxoplasmosis associated with intensive prenatal treatment in Lyon and Austria, short term treatment in 51% of Dutch women, and no treatment in Danish women. For each cohort, relative risks were standardized for gestation at(More)
OBJECTIVE Few data exist on the virological response to antiretroviral therapy of individuals infected with African HIV-1 subtypes. Our objective was to compare the response, in our clinic, of African HIV-1-infected patients with their British and European contemporaries treated with the same regimes. DESIGN The St Mary's Hospital HIV database was used to(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies of sexual behavior have shown that individuals vary greatly in their number of sexual partners over time, but it has proved difficult to obtain parameter estimates relating to the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission except in small-scale contact tracing studies. Recent developments in molecular phylodynamics(More)