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We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of(More)
The 1918 influenza pandemic was a catastrophic series of virus outbreaks that spread across the globe. Here, we show that only a modest change in the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site alters the transmissibility of this pandemic virus. Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch in receptor binding preference from the human alpha-2,6 to(More)
Since the outbreak in humans of an H5N1 avian influenza virus in Hong Kong in 1997, poultry entering the live-bird markets of Hong Kong have been closely monitored for infection with avian influenza. In March 1999, this monitoring system detected geese that were serologically positive for H5N1 avian influenza virus, but the birds were marketed before they(More)
Two low-pathogenicity (LP) and two high-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) viruses were inoculated into chickens by the intranasal route to determine the presence of the AI virus in breast and thigh meat as well as any potential role that meat could fill as a transmission vehicle. The LPAI viruses caused localized virus infections in respiratory and(More)
The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans(More)
Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea(More)
The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was responsible for about 50 million deaths worldwide. Modern histopathological analysis of autopsy samples from human influenza cases from 1918 revealed significant damage to the lungs with acute, focal bronchitis and alveolitis associated with massive pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage and rapid destruction of the respiratory(More)
Genes of an influenza A (H5N1) virus from a human in Hong Kong isolated in May 1997 were sequenced and found to be all avian-like (K. Subbarao et al., Science 279:393-395, 1998). Gene sequences of this human isolate were compared to those of a highly pathogenic chicken H5N1 influenza virus isolated from Hong Kong in April 1997. Sequence comparisons of all(More)
Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPA1) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of North American ducks and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses.(More)
BACKGROUND Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a(More)