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The molecular basis for patterning of complex organ structures like the lung and insect tracheal system is unknown. Here, we describe the Drosophila gene branchless (bnl) and demonstrate that it is a key determinant of the tracheal branching pattern. bnl is required for tracheal branching and is expressed dynamically in clusters of cells surrounding the(More)
Antagonists of several growth factor signaling pathways play important roles in developmental patterning by limiting the range of the cognate inducer. Here, we describe an antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. In wild-type embryos, the Branchless FGF induces secondary branching by activating the Breathless FGF(More)
Evidence for behavioural effects of caffeine is well documented in the literature. It is associated with increased subjective alertness, improved reaction time and enhanced encoding of new information. These effects are most prominent in low arousal situations. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether such changes are in fact improvements or merely(More)
RATIONALE A number of recent studies have suggested that caffeine only improves mood and cognitive performance in regular caffeine consumers who are caffeine withdrawn at test (the "withdrawal hypothesis"). This can be tested by investigating the effects of caffeine in non-consumers of caffeine. OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of 2 mg/kg caffeine on(More)
Gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy are the consequence of contractures across joints, muscle spasticity, and phasically inappropriate muscle action. Though abnormalities involving one of the major joints of the lower extremity will usually have consequences on the function of the other joints, it is possible to recognize certain primary(More)
RATIONALE Evidence for the behavioural effects of caffeine is prevalent in the literature. It is associated with increased subjective alertness, improved reaction time and enhanced encoding of new information. However, there is an on-going debate as to whether such changes are in fact improvements or merely a reversal of the negative effects of caffeine(More)
In 1996, I was asked by Roy Davis, President of the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society, to be the presidential guest speaker at the Birmingham, AL, annual society meeting and present a talk on the development of clinical gait analysis. Following my presentation, James Gage, Editor-in-Chief for Gait and Posture, and David Winter, Associate Editor(More)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the gait of subjects receiving two injections of either botulinum A toxin or saline vehicle into the gastrocnemius muscle(s). The study group consisted of cerebral palsy patients who walked with an equinus gait pattern. This study was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel clinical trial of 20 subjects. All were(More)