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A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay based on the avian influenza virus matrix gene was developed for the rapid detection of type A influenza virus. Additionally, H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtype-specific probe sets were developed based on North American avian influenza virus sequences. The RRT-PCR assay utilizes a one-step RT-PCR protocol(More)
Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPA1) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of North American ducks and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses.(More)
A real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) was developed to detect avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) RNA, also referred to as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in clinical samples from birds. The assay uses a single-tube protocol with fluorogenic hydrolysis probes. Oligonucleotide primers and probes were designed to detect sequences from a conserved region(More)
An outbreak of avian influenza (AI) caused by a low-pathogenic H5N2 type A influenza virus began in Mexico in 1993 and several highly pathogenic strains of the virus emerged in 1994-1995. The highly pathogenic virus has not been reported since 1996, but the low-pathogenic virus remains endemic in Mexico and has spread to two adjacent countries, Guatemala(More)
Low-virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV) are frequently recovered from wild bird species, but little is known about their distribution, genetic diversity, or potential to cause disease in poultry. NDV isolates recovered from cloacal samples of apparently healthy waterfowl and shorebirds (WS) in the United States during 1986 to 2005 were examined for(More)
BACKGROUND The recent emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus has highlighted the value of free and open access to influenza virus genome sequence data integrated with information about other important virus characteristics. DESIGN The Influenza Research Database (IRD, http://www.fludb.org) is a free, open, publicly-accessible resource(More)
Newcastle disease viruses isolated from Hong Kong live bird markets (LBMs) were not detected by a USDA-validated matrix gene real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay. Based upon phylogenetic analysis of the fusion gene, these viruses were related to lentogenic class I viruses found in U.S. LBMs and wild waterfowl. An alternative real-time RT-PCR(More)
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or(More)
Influenza A viruses occur worldwide in wild birds and are occasionally associated with outbreaks in commercial chickens and turkeys. However, avian influenza viruses have not been isolated from wild birds or poultry in South America. A recent outbreak in chickens of H7N3 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) occurred in Chile. One month later, after a(More)
Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses are one of the natural hosts where such reassortment(More)