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September1999 Abstract The zero lower bound on nominal interest rates constrains the central bank's ability to stimulate the economy during downturns. We use the FRBBUS model to quantify the eeects of the bound on macroeconomic stabilization and to explore how policy can be designed to minimize these eeects. During particularly severe contractions,(More)
We survey the evidence bearing on measurement error in the CPI and provide our best estimate of the magnitude of CPI bias. We also identify a " weighting " bias in the CPI that has not been previously discussed in the literature. In total, we estimate that the CPI overstates the change in the cost of living by about 0.6 percentage point per year, with a(More)
Now that the mouse and human genome sequences are complete, biologists need systematic approaches to determine the function of each gene. A powerful way to discover gene function is to determine the consequence of mutations in living organisms. Large-scale production of mouse mutations with the point mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) is a key strategy for(More)
Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive disorder that is endemic to the mid-Volga River region. We previously mapped the locus associated with Chuvash polycythemia to chromosome 3p25. The gene associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, VHL, maps to this region, and homozygosity with respect to a C-->T missense mutation in VHL, causing an(More)
PURPOSE Increased expression of fibroblast growth factors that can activate the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR-4) occurs in a substantial fraction of human prostate cancers in vivo. A germline polymorphism of the FGFR-4 gene resulting in expression of arginine at codon 388 (Arg388) is associated with aggressive disease in patients with breast and(More)
Retinoid dehydrogenases/reductases catalyze key oxidation-reduction reactions in the visual cycle that converts vitamin A to 11-cis retinal, the chromophore of the rod and cone photoreceptors. It has recently been shown that mutations in RDH12, encoding a retinol dehydrogenase, result in severe and early-onset autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy (arRD).(More)
We present four patients, in whom we identified overlapping deletions in 5q14.3 involving MEF2C using a clinical oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). In case 1, CMA revealed an approximately 140 kb deletion encompassing the first three exons of MEF2C in a 3-year-old patient with severe(More)
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with unknown developmental defect(s) in the anterior chamber. Recently, we reported three distinct mutations in CYP1B1, the gene for cytochrome P4501B1, in 25 Saudi families segregating PCG. For this report, we analyzed 37 additional families and confirmed the initial finding of(More)
An autosomal-recessive mutation that causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism was isolated during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen in mice. Affected males had micropenis and small, undescended testes with spermatogenesis arrested at the pachytene stage of meiosis, leading to sterility. Androgen-sensitive organs were small and immature. Affected(More)
Familial clustering of malignancies provides a unique opportunity to identify molecular causes of cancer. Polycythemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative disorder due to an unknown somatic stem cell defect that leads to clonal myeloid hyperproliferation. We studied 6 families with PV. The familial predisposition to PV appears to follow an autosomal dominant(More)