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A review of the literature that examines event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and novelty processing reveals that the orienting response engendered by deviant or unexpected events consists of a characteristic ERP pattern, comprised sequentially of the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the novelty P3 or P3a. A wide variety of evidence suggests that the MMN(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and distribution of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS Summary prevalence estimates of drusen 125 microm or larger, neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy were prepared separately for black and white persons in 5-year age intervals starting at 40(More)
Thirty families, consisting of two parents and two adolescent children, were tested on a high-processing load Continuous Performance Test, the CPT-IP, which required identification of identical stimulus pairs within a continuously presented series of stimuli. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for research concerned with the role of(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the cause-specific prevalence and distribution of blindness and low vision in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender, and to estimate the change in these prevalence figures over the next 20 years. METHODS Summary prevalence estimates of blindness (both according to the US definition of < or =6/60 [< or =20/200](More)
Learning a new motor skill requires an alteration in the spatiotemporal pattern of muscle activation. Motor areas of cerebral neocortex are thought to be involved in this type of learning, possibly by functional reorganization of cortical connections. Here we show that skill learning is accompanied by changes in the strength of connections within adult rat(More)
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from young (M age=25) and older (M age=71) adults during the study phase of a recognition memory paradigm. Participants studied two temporally distinct lists of sentences (each containing two unassociated nouns). During recognition testing, in response to the nouns, participants made old/new, followed by(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and distribution of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS Summary prevalence estimates of OAG were prepared separately for black, Hispanic, and white subjects in 5-year age intervals starting at 40 years. The estimated rates were based on a meta-analysis of recent(More)
A decrease in the frontal lobes' efficiency is supposed to play a role in age-related changes in cognitive function. If frontal lobes are involved in the maintenance of working memory, the elderly may require increased frontal activity because of more rapid memory decay. This is consistent with the fact that the P3 component of the event-related potential(More)
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from young (M = 25) and older (M = 71) adults during a recognition memory paradigm that assessed episodic priming. Participants studied two temporally distinct lists of sentences (each with two unassociated nouns). At test, in response to the nouns, participants made old-new, followed by remember (context)-know(More)