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The development of the head and tail regions of the Drosophila embryo is dependent upon the localized polar activation of Torso (Tor), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is uniformly distributed in the membrane of the developing embryo. Trunk (Trk), the proposed ligand for Tor, is secreted as an inactive precursor into the perivitelline fluid that lies between(More)
Caveolae are vesicular organelles that represent a sub-compartment of the plasma membrane. Caveolins (Cav-1, -2 and -3) and flotillins (FLO-1 and FLO-2 [also known as epidermal surface antigens (ESAs)] are two families of mammalian caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins. Although a caveolin gene family has recently been described in the invertebrate(More)
Dorsoventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryo is established by a signal transduction pathway that comprises the products of at least 12 maternal genes. Two of these genes, dorsal and cactus, show homology to the mammalian transcription factor NF-kappa B and its inhibitor I kappa B, respectively. As in the case for I kappa B and NF-kappa B, Cactus(More)
Expression of pipe in the somatic tissue of the Drosophila ovary is required for the formation of embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. pipe, which encodes an enzyme similar to the glycosaminoglycan-modifying enzyme heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase, is expressed in a spatially restricted domain of follicle cells on the ventral side of the egg chamber.(More)
—This paper addresses the design and commutation of a novel kind of spherical stepper motor in which the poles of the stator are electromagnets and the poles of the rotor (rotating ball) are permanent magnets. Due to the fact that points on a sphere can only be arranged with equal spacing in a limited number of cases (corresponding to the Platonic solids),(More)
The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral(More)
Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity is controlled by a group of sequentially acting serine proteases located in the fluid-filled perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell, which generate the ligand for the Toll receptor on the ventral side of the embryo. Spatial control of the protease cascade relies on the Pipe(More)
Drosophila embryo dorsoventral (DV) polarity is defined by serine protease activity in the perivitelline space (PVS) between the embryonic membrane and the inner layer of the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective (GD) cleaves and activates Snake (Snk). Activated Snk cleaves and activates Easter (Ea), exclusively on the ventral side of the embryo. Activated Ea(More)
Online social network (OSN) queries require retrievals of multiple small records generated by different users in the network, and the set of records to be retrieved is time dependent. Current implementation of hash-based partitioning results in accesses at a large number of servers, which significantly degrades response time. Partitioning the OSN friendship(More)
UNLABELLED The pathway that generates the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle(More)