David Stafford

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Memcached is a well known, simple, inmemory caching solution. This paper describes how Facebook leverages memcached as a building block to construct and scale a distributed key-value store that supports the world’s largest social network. Our system handles billions of requests per second and holds trillions of items to deliver a rich experience for over a(More)
The mechanisms that subdivide the endoderm into the discrete primordia that give rise to organs such as the pancreas and liver are not well understood. However, it is known that retinoic acid (RA) signaling is critical for regionalization of the vertebrate embryo: when RA signaling is either prevented or augmented, anteroposterior (AP) patterning of the CNS(More)
 Drugs, like other reinforcers, can vary in their relative abilities to support operant responding. Considerable research has been designed to obtain useful measures of a given drug’s or dose’s ”reinforcing efficacy” and to identify the ways in which a variety of behavioral and pharmacological variables impact these measures. Progressive-ratio schedules of(More)
The cytoskeletal protein non-erythroid alpha-spectrin is well documented as an endogenous calpain substrate, especially under pathophysiological conditions. In cell necrosis (e.g. maitotoxin-treated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells), alpha-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) of 150 kDa and 145 kDa were produced by cellular calpains. In contrast, in neuronal(More)
In primates, the retinal ganglion cells that project to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus have distinctive responses to light, and one of these has been identified morphologically as the parasol ganglion cell. To investigate their synaptic connections, we injected parasol cells with Neurobiotin in lightly fixed baboon retinas. The(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal inherited disease that results from abnormal chloride conduction in epithelial tissues. ClC-2 chloride channels are expressed in epithelia affected by CF and may provide a key "alternative" target for pharmacotherapy of this disease. To explore this possibility, the expression level of ClC-2 channels was genetically(More)
Both ice-like protease and calpain have been shown to be involved in apoptosis in non-neuronal cells. Cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons undergo apoptosis when exposed to low potassium-containing medium. Calpain inhibitors 3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-mercapto-(Z)-2-propenoic acid (PD150606) and N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Met-CHO (calpain inhibitor II) as well as(More)
Illuminating the molecular identity and regulation of early progenitor cells in the olfactory sensory epithelium represents an important challenge in the field of neural development. We show in both mouse and zebrafish that the winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 is expressed in an early progenitor population of the olfactory placode. In the mouse,(More)
During vertebrate development, the endodermal germ layer becomes regionalized along its anteroposterior axis to give rise to a variety of organs, including the pancreas. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the signaling molecule retinoic acid (RA) plays a crucial role in endoderm patterning and promotes pancreas development. To(More)
Rationale: Toluene is a solvent found in many commercial products and is frequently abused by inhalation. Whether previous exposure to toluene alters subsequent responses to other drugs of abuse is not known. Objectives: This study determined the effects of repeated toluene exposure on the acute motor-stimulant response to cocaine and on cocaine-induced(More)