David Southwell

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We surveyed 655 health professionals affiliated with tertiary level neonatal intensive care units in Canada and the United States to define an expanded role for nurses in neonatology and to determine the educational requirements for the role. The role, comprising advanced clinical practice, educational, research, and administrative responsibilities, is a(More)
To assess the effect of grading of tenderness on the interrater reliability of the Ritchie articular index (RAI), 3 physicians recorded independent joint scores on each of 18 patients, examined in random order. Our results indicate that close agreement (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.85) can be achieved on global RAI scores, and that raters can(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable discriminative index that measures parent satisfaction with the medical care of their infant in the NICU. We developed an initial questionnaire (Item Reduction Questionnaire) by reviewing the literature, surveying 63 NICU clinicians, and interviewing 125 parents of infants in 2 tertiary level(More)
Penetration-enhancing solvents may modify diffusional routes through the stratum corneum and the partitioning of drugs into these pathways. To investigate the mechanisms of action of enhancers, steady-state fluxes were measured in vitro for polar methanol, nonpolar octanol, and an intermediate compound, caffeine, selected as model penetrants; human stratum(More)
The occluded vasoconstrictor assay was used to assess the effect of penetration enhancers on the topical bioavailability of a representative steroid, betamethasone 17-benzoate, with dimethylisosorbide (DMI) as a reference solvent. In the initial test, only N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) increased the steroid bioavailability; acetone, dimethylformamide (DMF),(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare a clinical nurse specialist/neonatal practitioner (CNS/NP) team with a pediatric resident team in the delivery of neonatal intensive care. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING A 33-bed tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS Of 821 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between September 1991(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to study the effect of operator transducer pressure on amniotic fluid index and single deepest pool measurements and their intraobserver and interobserver variability. STUDY DESIGN Forty subjects in the third trimester with intact membranes were studied by two observers at three predetermined operator pressures. Pressure was(More)