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In December 1997, the National Cancer Institute sponsored "The International Workshop on Microsatellite Instability and RER Phenotypes in Cancer Detection and Familial Predisposition," to review and unify the field. The following recommendations were endorsed at the workshop. (a) The form of genomic instability associated with defective DNA mismatch repair(More)
BACKGROUND High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologic agents for anogenital tract cancers and have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). We investigated, retrospectively, an etiologic role for HPVs in a large series of patients with HNSCC. METHODS Tumor tissues from 253 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent(More)
Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved codons of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in diverse types of human cancer. The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues, and hemopoietic tissues. Analysis of these mutations can provide clues to the etiology of these(More)
The inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis that follows DNA damage may be critical for avoiding genetic lesions that could contribute to cellular transformation. Exposure of ML-1 myeloblastic leukemia cells to nonlethal doses of the DNA damaging agents, gamma-irradiation or actinomycin D, causes a transient inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis via both(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. To explore the genetic origins of this cancer, we used whole-exome sequencing and gene copy number analyses to study 32 primary tumors. Tumors from patients with a history of tobacco use had more mutations than did tumors from patients who did not use tobacco, and(More)
The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2/p16/MTS1, located on chromosome 9p21, is frequently inactivated in many human cancers through homozygous deletion. Recently, we have reported another pathway of inactivation that involves loss of transcription associated with de novo methylation of a 5' CpG island of CDKN2/p16 in lung cancers, gliomas, and head and neck(More)
The p53 and MDM2 genes were analyzed in 24 human soft tissue sarcomas (11 malignant fibrous histiocytomas and 13 liposarcomas). Alterations of p53, consisting of point mutations, deletions, or overexpression, were detected in one-third (8 of 24) of the sarcomas. MDM2 gene amplification was detected in another 8 tumors, but no tumor contained an alteration(More)
Germ-line mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with hereditary familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and somatic mutations are common in sporadic colorectal tumors. We now report that methylation in the promoter region of this gene constitutes an alternative mechanism for gene inactivation in colon and other tumors of the(More)
A genetic progression model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been elucidated, and the genetic basis for "field cancerization" of the aerodigestive tract has also remained obscure. Eighty-seven lesions of the head and neck, including preinvasive lesions and benign lesions associated with carcinogen exposure, were tested using(More)
BACKGROUND Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NRF2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the expression of genes encoding antioxidants, xenobiotic detoxification enzymes, and drug efflux pumps, and confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics in normal cells. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(More)