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Evaluation of the electrostatic properties of biomolecules has become a standard practice in molecular biophysics. Foremost among the models used to elucidate the electrostatic potential is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation; however, existing methods for solving this equation have limited the scope of accurate electrostatic calculations to relatively small(More)
The heterodimeric actin capping protein, referred to here as "CP," is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, binding to the barbed ends of actin filaments and regulating their polymerization. In vitro, CP has a critical role in the dendritic nucleation process of actin assembly mediated by Arp2/3 complex, and in vivo, CP is important for actin(More)
Capping protein (CP) binds the fast growing barbed end of the actin filament and regulates actin assembly by blocking the addition and loss of actin subunits. Recent studies provide new insights into how CP and barbed-end capping are regulated. Filament elongation factors, such as formins and ENA/VASP (enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein),(More)
We measured the lengths of actin filaments formed by spontaneous polymerization of highly purified actin monomers by fluorescence microscopy after labeling with rhodamine-phalloidin. The length distributions are exponential with a mean of approximately 7 microm (2600 subunits). This length is independent of the initial concentration of actin monomer, an(More)
S-(3,4-Dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea (A22) disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of bacteria, causing defects of morphology and chromosome segregation. Previous studies have suggested that the actin homologue MreB itself is the target of A22, but there has been no direct observation of A22 binding to MreB and no mechanistic explanation of its mode of action. We show(More)
Toxoplasma is a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains a number of medically important parasites that rely on a highly unusual form of motility termed gliding to actively penetrate their host cells. Parasite actin filaments regulate gliding motility, yet paradoxically filamentous actin is rarely detected in these parasites. To(More)
Myo1c is a member of the myosin superfamily that binds phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), links the actin cytoskeleton to cellular membranes and plays roles in mechano-signal transduction and membrane trafficking. We located and characterized two distinct membrane binding sites within the regulatory and tail domains of this myosin. By sequence,(More)
Neurodegenerative disease in humans and mice can be caused by mutations affecting the microtubule motor dynein or its biochemical regulator, dynactin, a multiprotein complex required for dynein function (1-4). A single amino acid change, G59S, in the conserved cytoskeletal-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain of the p150(glued) subunit of(More)
Protozoan parasites are remarkably sensitive to dinitroanilines such as oryzalin, which disrupt plant but not animal microtubules. To explore the basis of dinitroaniline action, we isolated 49 independent resistant Toxoplasma gondii lines after chemical mutagenesis. All 23 of the lines that we examined harbored single point mutations in alpha-tubulin. These(More)
We investigated the effect of actin filament length and capping protein on the rate of end-to-end annealing of actin filaments. Long filaments were fragmented by shearing and allowed to recover. Stabilizing filaments with phalloidin in most experiments eliminated any contribution of subunit dissociation and association to the redistribution of lengths but(More)