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The Schlafen (Slfn) family of genes are differentially regulated during thymocyte maturation and are preferentially expressed in the lymphoid tissues. Ectopic expression of the prototype member Slfn1 early in the T lineage profoundly alters cell growth and development. In these mice, the DP thymocytes fail to complete maturation, and, depending on the(More)
Peptide ligands bind the CRF(1) receptor by a two-domain mechanism: the ligand's carboxyl-terminal portion binds the receptor's extracellular N-terminal domain (N-domain) and the ligand's amino-terminal portion binds the receptor's juxtamembrane domain (J-domain). Little quantitative information is available regarding this mechanism. Specifically, the(More)
During development, progenitor thymocytes differentiate into either CD4 or CD8 T cells, and this fate decision depends on the specificity of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) for MHC class II or class I molecules. Based on the mechanisms of fate specification known for simple metazoan organisms, we sought to determine whether the extracellular(More)
The CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is predominantly expressed on T helper type 1 (Th1) cells that are involved in inflammatory diseases. The three CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are produced at sites of inflammation and elicit migration of pathological Th1 cells. Here, we are the first to characterize the pharmacological potencies and specificity(More)
We have identified a splice variant encoding only the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA(B)) receptor subunit GABA(B(1a)). This isoform, which we have named GABA(B(1e)), is detected in both rats and humans. While GABA(B(1e)) is a minor component of the total pool of GABA(B(1)) transcripts detected in the central(More)
We have used a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia to investigate changes in gene expression that occur during stroke. To monitor these changes, we employed representational difference analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 128 unique gene fragments were isolated, and we selected 13 of these for quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR(More)
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) forms part of the mesocorticolimbic system and plays a pivotal role in reward and reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. Glutamate transmission within the VTA controls important aspects of goal-directed behavior and motivation. Noradrenergic receptors also present in the VTA have important functions in the modulation of(More)
The activity of most drugs is regulated by the binding of one molecule (the lig-and) to a pocket of another, usually larger, molecule, which is commonly a protein. This report describes a new approach to creating low-energy structures of flexible proteins to which ligands can be docked. The flexibility of molecules is encoded with thousands of parameters(More)
APCs of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse have a genetically programmed capacity to overexpress IL-12p40, a cytokine critical for development of pathogenic autoreactive Th1 cells. To determine whether a diabetes-associated NOD chromosomal locus (i.e., Idd) was responsible for this defect, LPS-stimulated macrophages from several recombinant congenic inbred(More)
Protein folding refers to the process whereby a protein assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape. This chapter reviews a class of methods for studying the folding process called roadmap methods. The goal of these methods is not to predict the folded structure of a protein, but rather to analyze the folding kinetics. It is assumed that the folded state(More)